Spatial Distribution and Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Sediments of Tobruk Bay (Libya)

  • Heba A. Amin
  • Hadeer N. Saleh
  • Mohamed Y. OmarEmail author
  • Alaa R. Mostafa
  • Younis E. Ebraham
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1104)


The Tobruk Bay represents great commercial and economic importance as a result of population growth, urban development, economic and industrial activity. Large quantities of municipal and industrial waste are disposed directly in seawater. Heavy metals are the most important and most serious problems in aquatic environments. This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of heavy metals contamination and their distribution in the sediments. Sixteen sites were selected and identified accurately representing the study area. Samples placed in self-closing polyethylene bags and stored in ice boxes then transfer to the laboratory, they stored in the refrigerator at −20 ℃ in the dark until analysis. The ICP-OES instrument was used to detect the desired heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the surface sediment samples. The ranges of TOC and the fine fraction (clay and silt) contents of analyzed sediments are 2.2%–4.7% and 0.2%–1.7%, respectively. Their average values are 3.3% and 0.8%, respectively. The comparison of heavy metal concentrations in this study with that of previous studies in other regions shows that the concentration of heavy metals in surface sediments of Tobruk bay is lower than concentrations of heavy metals in Western Xiamen Bay, China, New York Harbor, Bremenn Harbor Germany, Izmir Harbor, Turkey regions. The calculated results of Igeo values indicated that all the sampling stations were extremely polluted with As, also enrichment factor revealed the same results.


Assessment of heavy metals Sediment Tobruk bay Spatial distribution Geo-statistical analysis Geo-accumulation index Enrichment factor Pollution load index 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heba A. Amin
    • 1
  • Hadeer N. Saleh
    • 1
  • Mohamed Y. Omar
    • 2
    Email author
  • Alaa R. Mostafa
    • 1
  • Younis E. Ebraham
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of ScienceAlexandria UniversityAlexandriaEgypt
  2. 2.Basics and Applied Sciences Department, College of Engineering and TechnologyArab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime TransportAlexandriaEgypt

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