Advertisement

Therapeutic Hypothermia in Neurocritical Care

  • Vishank Arun ShahEmail author
  • Romergryko G. Geocadin
Chapter
  • 29 Downloads
Part of the Current Clinical Neurology book series (CCNEU)

Abstract

The neuroprotective benefits of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) have been known for several decades but have become conventional in clinical practice only over the last decade, after large randomized clinical trials (RCT) affirmed the benefits of TH in preventing neurologic injury, predominantly in cardiac arrest survivors. In neurocritical care, the applications of TH have been extended to several critical neurologic illnesses including refractory elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP), status epilepticus, ischemic stroke, and traumatic brain injury among others. The appropriate clinical use of TH requires understanding the postulated pathophysiologic mechanisms behind TH-induced neuroprotection, associated wanted and unwanted physiologic effects of TH, methods of inducing TH, and clinical care of patients during TH. All of these aspects will be addressed in this chapter.

Keywords

Therapeutic hypothermia Cardiac arrest Brain injury Fever Shivering Rewarming 

References

  1. 1.
    Karnatovskaia LV, Wartenberg KE, Freeman WD. Therapeutic hypothermia for neuroprotection: history, mechanisms, risks, and clinical applications. Neurohospitalist. 2014;4(3):153–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bigelow WG, Lindsay WK, Greenwood WF. Hypothermia; its possible role in cardiac surgery: an investigation of factors governing survival in dogs at low body temperatures. Ann Surg. 1950;132(5):849–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zimmerman JM, Spencer FC. The influence of hypothermia on cerebral injury resulting from circulatory occlusion. Surg Forum. 1958;9:216–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rosomoff HL, Holaday DA. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption during hypothermia. Am J Phys. 1954;179(1):85–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Williams GR, Spencer FC. The clinical use of hypothermia following cardiac arrest. Ann Surg. 1958;148(3):462–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Benson DW, Williams GR, Spencer FC, Yates AJ. The use of hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Anesth Analg. 1959;38:423–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Safar P. Community-wide cardiopulmonary resuscitation. J Iowa Med Soc. 1964;54:629–35.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Polderman KH, Herold I. Therapeutic hypothermia and controlled normothermia in the intensive care unit: practical considerations, side effects, and cooling methods. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(3):1101–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nielsen N, Wetterslev J, Cronberg T, Erlinge D, Gasche Y, Hassager C, et al. Targeted temperature management at 33 degrees C versus 36 degrees C after cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(23):2197–206.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Geocadin RG, Wijdicks E, Armstrong MJ, Damian M, Mayer SA, Ornato JP, et al. Practice guideline summary: reducing brain injury following cardiopulmonary resuscitation: report of the guideline development, dissemination, and implementation subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2017;88(22):2141–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yenari MA, Han HS. Neuroprotective mechanisms of hypothermia in brain ischaemia. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012;13(4):267–78.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kuffler DP. Maximizing neuroprotection: where do we stand? Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2012;8:185–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vemuganti R. The microRNAs and stroke: no need to be coded to be counted. Transl Stroke Res. 2010;1(3):158–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang Q, Tang XN, Yenari MA. The inflammatory response in stroke. J Neuroimmunol. 2007;184(1–2):53–68.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Erecinska M, Thoresen M, Silver IA. Effects of hypothermia on energy metabolism in mammalian central nervous system. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003;23(5):513–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nakashima K, Todd MM. Effects of hypothermia on the rate of excitatory amino acid release after ischemic depolarization. Stroke. 1996;27(5):913–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhao H, Steinberg GK, Sapolsky RM. General versus specific actions of mild-moderate hypothermia in attenuating cerebral ischemic damage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007;27(12):1879–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee JE, Yoon YJ, Moseley ME, Yenari MA. Reduction in levels of matrix metalloproteinases and increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 in response to mild hypothermia therapy in experimental stroke. J Neurosurg. 2005;103(2):289–97.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Slikker W, Desai VG, Duhart H, Feuers R, Imam SZ. Hypothermia enhances bcl-2 expression and protects against oxidative stress-induced cell death in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001;31(3):405–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liu L, Yenari MA. Therapeutic hypothermia: neuroprotective mechanisms. Front Biosci. 2007;12:816–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shimohata T, Zhao H, Steinberg GK. Epsilon PKC may contribute to the protective effect of hypothermia in a rat focal cerebral ischemia model. Stroke. 2007;38(2):375–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhao H, Shimohata T, Wang JQ, Sun G, Schaal DW, Sapolsky RM, et al. Akt contributes to neuroprotection by hypothermia against cerebral ischemia in rats. J Neurosci. 2005;25(42):9794–806.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Perrone S, Szabo M, Bellieni CV, Longini M, Bango M, Kelen D, et al. Whole body hypothermia and oxidative stress in babies with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Pediatr Neurol. 2010;43(4):236–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yenari MA, Han HS. Influence of hypothermia on post-ischemic inflammation: role of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB). Neurochem Int. 2006;49(2):164–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Baumann E, Preston E, Slinn J, Stanimirovic D. Post-ischemic hypothermia attenuates loss of the vascular basement membrane proteins, agrin and SPARC, and the blood-brain barrier disruption after global cerebral ischemia. Brain Res. 2009;1269:185–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Xiao F, Arnold TC, Zhang S, Brown C, Alexander JS, Carden DL, et al. Cerebral cortical aquaporin-4 expression in brain edema following cardiac arrest in rats. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11(10):1001–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest Study Group. Mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(8):549–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bernard SA, Gray TW, Buist MD, Jones BM, Silvester W, Gutteridge G, et al. Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(8):557–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nolan JP, Morley PT, Vanden Hoek TL, Hickey RW, Kloeck WG, Billi J, et al. Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest: an advisory statement by the advanced life support task force of the international liaison committee on resuscitation. Circulation. 2003;108(1):118–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kim JJ, Yang HJ, Lim YS, Kim JK, Hyun SY, Hwang SY, et al. Effectiveness of each target body temperature during therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29(2):148–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lopez-de-Sa E, Rey JR, Armada E, Salinas P, Viana-Tejedor A, Espinosa-Garcia S, et al. Hypothermia in comatose survivors from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: pilot trial comparing 2 levels of target temperature. Circulation. 2012;126(24):2826–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dumas F, Grimaldi D, Zuber B, Fichet J, Charpentier J, Pene F, et al. Is hypothermia after cardiac arrest effective in both shockable and nonshockable patients?: insights from a large registry. Circulation. 2011;123(8):877–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Testori C, Sterz F, Behringer W, Haugk M, Uray T, Zeiner A, et al. Mild therapeutic hypothermia is associated with favourable outcome in patients after cardiac arrest with non-shockable rhythms. Resuscitation. 2011;82(9):1162–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vaahersalo J, Hiltunen P, Tiainen M, Oksanen T, Kaukonen KM, Kurola J, et al. Therapeutic hypothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Finnish intensive care units: the FINNRESUSCI study. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39(5):826–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nichol G, Huszti E, Kim F, Fly D, Parnia S, Donnino M, et al. Does induction of hypothermia improve outcomes after in-hospital cardiac arrest? Resuscitation. 2013;84(5):620–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Callaway CW, Donnino MW, Fink EL, Geocadin RG, Golan E, Kern KB, et al. Part 8: post-cardiac arrest care: 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2015;132(18 Suppl 2):S465–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lazaridis C, Robertson CS. Hypothermia for increased intracranial pressure: is it dead? Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2016;16(9):78–016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stocchetti N, Maas AI. Traumatic intracranial hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(22):2121–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Choi HA, Badjatia N, Mayer SA. Hypothermia for acute brain injury--mechanisms and practical aspects. Nat Rev Neurol. 2012;8(4):214–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Schreckinger M, Marion DW. Contemporary management of traumatic intracranial hypertension: is there a role for therapeutic hypothermia? Neurocrit Care. 2009;11(3):427–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sadaka F, Veremakis C. Therapeutic hypothermia for the management of intracranial hypertension in severe traumatic brain injury: a systematic review. Brain Inj. 2012;26(7–8):899–908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Henderson WR, Dhingra VK, Chittock DR, Fenwick JC, Ronco JJ. Hypothermia in the management of traumatic brain injury. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29(10):1637–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tokutomi T, Morimoto K, Miyagi T, Yamaguchi S, Ishikawa K, Shigemori M. Optimal temperature for the management of severe traumatic brain injury: effect of hypothermia on intracranial pressure, systemic and intracranial hemodynamics, and metabolism. Neurosurgery. 2003;52(1):102–11; discussion 111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gupta AK, Al-Rawi PG, Hutchinson PJ, Kirkpatrick PJ. Effect of hypothermia on brain tissue oxygenation in patients with severe head injury. Br J Anaesth. 2002;88(2):188–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Badjatia N. Hypothermia in neurocritical care. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2013;24(3):457–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Andrews PJ, Sinclair HL, Rodriguez A, Harris BA, Battison CG, Rhodes JK, et al. Hypothermia for intracranial hypertension after traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(25):2403–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Clifton GL, Miller ER, Choi SC, Levin HS, McCauley S, Smith KR, et al. Lack of effect of induction of hypothermia after acute brain injury. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(8):556–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shiozaki T, Hayakata T, Taneda M, Nakajima Y, Hashiguchi N, Fujimi S, et al. A multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of mild hypothermia for severely head injured patients with low intracranial pressure. Mild Hypothermia Study Group in Japan. J Neurosurg. 2001;94(1):50–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Clifton GL, Valadka A, Zygun D, Coffey CS, Drever P, Fourwinds S, et al. Very early hypothermia induction in patients with severe brain injury (the National Acute Brain Injury Study: Hypothermia II): a randomised trial. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10(2):131–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Carney N, Totten AM, O’Reilly C, Ullman JS, Hawryluk GW, Bell MJ, et al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury, fourth edition. Neurosurgery. 2017;80(1):6–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Melmed KR, Lyden PD. Meta-analysis of pre-clinical trials of therapeutic hypothermia for intracerebral hemorrhage. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2017;7(3):141–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fischer M, Schiefecker A, Lackner P, Frank F, Helbok R, Beer R, et al. Targeted temperature management in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a systematic review. Curr Drug Targets. 2017;18(12):1430–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rincon F, Friedman DP, Bell R, Mayer SA, Bray PF. Targeted temperature management after intracerebral hemorrhage (TTM-ICH): methodology of a prospective randomized clinical trial. Int J Stroke. 2014;9(5):646–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kollmar R, Juettler E, Huttner HB, Dorfler A, Staykov D, Kallmuenzer B, et al. Cooling in intracerebral hemorrhage (CINCH) trial: protocol of a randomized German-Austrian clinical trial. Int J Stroke. 2012;7(2):168–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Thome C, Schubert GA, Schilling L. Hypothermia as a neuroprotective strategy in subarachnoid hemorrhage: a pathophysiological review focusing on the acute phase. Neurol Res. 2005;27(3):229–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nagao S, Irie K, Kawai N, Kunishio K, Ogawa T, Nakamura T, et al. Protective effect of mild hypothermia on symptomatic vasospasm: a preliminary report. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2000;76:547–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kuramatsu JB, Kollmar R, Gerner ST, Madzar D, Pisarcikova A, Staykov D, et al. Is hypothermia helpful in severe subarachnoid Hemorrhage? An exploratory study on macro vascular spasm, delayed cerebral infarction and functional outcome after prolonged hypothermia. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2015;40(5–6):228–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gasser S, Khan N, Yonekawa Y, Imhof HG, Keller E. Long-term hypothermia in patients with severe brain edema after poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage: feasibility and intensive care complications. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2003;15(3):240–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Todd MM, Hindman BJ, Clarke WR, Torner JC, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial (IHAST) Investigators. Mild intraoperative hypothermia during surgery for intracranial aneurysm. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(2):135–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Choi W, Kwon SC, Lee WJ, Weon YC, Choi B, Lee H, et al. Feasibility and safety of mild therapeutic hypothermia in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage: prospective pilot study. J Korean Med Sci. 2017;32(8):1337–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Connolly ES, Rabinstein AA, Carhuapoma JR, Derdeyn CP, Dion J, Higashida RT, et al. Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/american Stroke Association. Stroke. 2012;43(6):1711–37.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schwab S, Schwarz S, Spranger M, Keller E, Bertram M, Hacke W. Moderate hypothermia in the treatment of patients with severe middle cerebral artery infarction. Stroke. 1998;29(12):2461–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Schwab S, Georgiadis D, Berrouschot J, Schellinger PD, Graffagnino C, Mayer SA. Feasibility and safety of moderate hypothermia after massive hemispheric infarction. Stroke. 2001;32(9):2033–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Steiner T, Friede T, Aschoff A, Schellinger PD, Schwab S, Hacke W. Effect and feasibility of controlled rewarming after moderate hypothermia in stroke patients with malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery. Stroke. 2001;32(12):2833–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Els T, Oehm E, Voigt S, Klisch J, Hetzel A, Kassubek J. Safety and therapeutical benefit of hemicraniectomy combined with mild hypothermia in comparison with hemicraniectomy alone in patients with malignant ischemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2006;21(1–2):79–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Powers WJ, Rabinstein AA, Ackerson T, Adeoye OM, Bambakidis NC, Becker K, et al. 2018 guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2018;49(3):e46–e110.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Legriel S, Resche-Rigon M, Cariou A. Dual anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of therapeutic hypothermia after status epilepticus. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2015;131:87–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zeiler FA, Zeiler KJ, Teitelbaum J, Gillman LM, West M. Therapeutic hypothermia for refractory status epilepticus. Can J Neurol Sci. 2015;42(4):221–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Brophy GM, Bell R, Claassen J, Alldredge B, Bleck TP, Glauser T, et al. Guidelines for the evaluation and management of status epilepticus. Neurocrit Care. 2012;17(1):3–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Glauser T, Shinnar S, Gloss D, Alldredge B, Arya R, Bainbridge J, et al. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children and adults: report of the guideline committee of the American Epilepsy Society. Epilepsy Curr. 2016;16(1):48–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Schwarz S, Hafner K, Aschoff A, Schwab S. Incidence and prognostic significance of fever following intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology. 2000;54(2):354–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rincon F, Lyden P, Mayer SA. Relationship between temperature, hematoma growth, and functional outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2013;18(1):45–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lord AS, Karinja S, Lantigua H, Carpenter A, Schmidt JM, Claassen J, et al. Therapeutic temperature modulation for fever after intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2014;21(2):200–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hemphill JC, Greenberg SM, Anderson CS, Becker K, Bendok BR, Cushman M, et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2015;46(7):2032–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fernandez A, Schmidt JM, Claassen J, Pavlicova M, Huddleston D, Kreiter KT, et al. Fever after subarachnoid hemorrhage: risk factors and impact on outcome. Neurology. 2007;68(13):1013–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dorhout Mees SM, Luitse MJ, van den Bergh WM, Rinkel GJ. Fever after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: relation with extent of hydrocephalus and amount of extravasated blood. Stroke. 2008;39(7):2141–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Diringer MN, Bleck TP, Claude Hemphill J, Menon D, Shutter L, Vespa P, et al. Critical care management of patients following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: recommendations from the Neurocritical Care Society’s Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference. Neurocrit Care. 2011;15(2):211–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Badjatia N, Fernandez L, Schmidt JM, Lee K, Claassen J, Connolly ES, et al. Impact of induced normothermia on outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case-control study. Neurosurgery. 2010;66(4):696–700; discussion 700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cairns CJ, Andrews PJ. Management of hyperthermia in traumatic brain injury. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2002;8(2):106–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jones PA, Andrews PJ, Midgley S, Anderson SI, Piper IR, Tocher JL, et al. Measuring the burden of secondary insults in head-injured patients during intensive care. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 1994;6(1):4–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Stocchetti N, Rossi S, Zanier ER, Colombo A, Beretta L, Citerio G. Pyrexia in head-injured patients admitted to intensive care. Intensive Care Med. 2002;28(11):1555–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jiang JY, Gao GY, Li WP, Yu MK, Zhu C. Early indicators of prognosis in 846 cases of severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2002;19(7):869–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bao L, Chen D, Ding L, Ling W, Xu F. Fever burden is an independent predictor for prognosis of traumatic brain injury. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e90956.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Badjatia N. Hyperthermia and fever control in brain injury. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(7 Suppl):S250–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ginsberg MD, Busto R. Combating hyperthermia in acute stroke: a significant clinical concern. Stroke. 1998;29(2):529–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Castillo J, Davalos A, Marrugat J, Noya M. Timing for fever-related brain damage in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 1998;29(12):2455–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wang Y, Lim LL, Levi C, Heller RF, Fisher J. Influence of admission body temperature on stroke mortality. Stroke. 2000;31(2):404–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Saxena M, Young P, Pilcher D, Bailey M, Harrison D, Bellomo R, et al. Early temperature and mortality in critically ill patients with acute neurological diseases: trauma and stroke differ from infection. Intensive Care Med. 2015;41(5):823–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Aminoff MJ, Simon RP. Status epilepticus. Causes, clinical features and consequences in 98 patients. Am J Med. 1980;69(5):657–66.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fountain NB. Status epilepticus: risk factors and complications. Epilepsia. 2000;41(Suppl 2):S23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Blennow G, Brierley JB, Meldrum BS, Siesjo BK. Epileptic brain damage: the role of systemic factors that modify cerebral energy metabolism. Brain. 1978;101(4):687–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mellergard P, Nordstrom CH. Epidural temperature and possible intracerebral temperature gradients in man. Br J Neurosurg. 1990;4(1):31–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hirashima Y, Takaba M, Endo S, Hayashi N, Yamashita K, Takaku A. Intracerebral temperature in patients with hydrocephalus of varying aetiology. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998;64(6):792–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    O’Grady NP, Barie PS, Bartlett J, Bleck T, Garvey G, Jacobi J, et al. Practice parameters for evaluating new fever in critically ill adult patients. Task force of the American College of Critical Care Medicine of the Society of Critical Care Medicine in collaboration with the Infectious Disease Society of America. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(2):392–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Moran JL, Peter JV, Solomon PJ, Grealy B, Smith T, Ashforth W, et al. Tympanic temperature measurements: are they reliable in the critically ill? A clinical study of measures of agreement. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(1):155–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Madden LK, Hill M, May TL, Human T, Guanci MM, Jacobi J, et al. The implementation of targeted temperature management: an evidence-based guideline from the neurocritical care society. Neurocrit Care. 2017;27(3):468–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Coppler PJ, Marill KA, Okonkwo DO, Shutter LA, Dezfulian C, Rittenberger JC, et al. Concordance of brain and core temperature in comatose patients after cardiac arrest. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2016;6(4):194–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mcilvoy L. Comparison of brain temperature to core temperature: a review of the literature. J Neurosci Nurs. 2004;36(1):23–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Badjatia N. Therapeutic hypothermia protocols. Handb Clin Neurol. 2017;141:619–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lay C, Badjatia N. Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2010;12(5):336–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hoedemaekers CW, Ezzahti M, Gerritsen A, van der Hoeven JG. Comparison of cooling methods to induce and maintain normo- and hypothermia in intensive care unit patients: a prospective intervention study. Crit Care. 2007;11(4):R91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Look X, Li H, Ng M, Lim ETS, Pothiawala S, Tan KBK, et al. Randomized controlled trial of internal and external targeted temperature management methods in post- cardiac arrest patients. Am J Emerg Med. 2018;36(1):66–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Badjatia N. Fever control in the neuro-ICU: why, who, and when? Curr Opin Crit Care. 2009;15(2):79–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sessler DI. Defeating normal thermoregulatory defenses: induction of therapeutic hypothermia. Stroke. 2009;40(11):e614–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mirzoyev SA, McLeod CJ, Bunch TJ, Bell MR, White RD. Hypokalemia during the cooling phase of therapeutic hypothermia and its impact on arrhythmogenesis. Resuscitation. 2010;81(12):1632–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Soleimanpour H, Rahmani F, Golzari SE, Safari S. Main complications of mild induced hypothermia after cardiac arrest: a review article. J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2014;6(1):1–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Bergman R, Braber A, Adriaanse MA, van Vugt R, Tjan DH, van Zanten AR. Haemodynamic consequences of mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2010;27(4):383–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Schefold JC, Storm C, Joerres A, Hasper D. Mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest and the risk of bleeding in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol. 2009;132(3):387–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Polderman KH. Application of therapeutic hypothermia in the intensive care unit. Opportunities and pitfalls of a promising treatment modality--part 2: practical aspects and side effects. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30(5):757–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mayer SA, Kowalski RG, Presciutti M, Ostapkovich ND, McGann E, Fitzsimmons BF, et al. Clinical trial of a novel surface cooling system for fever control in neurocritical care patients. Crit Care Med. 2004;32(12):2508–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurology and NeurosurgeryUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care MedicineJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations