Advertisement

Formulation of UV Curable Resins Utilized in Vat Photo Polymerization for the Additive Manufacturing of Gun Propulsion Charge in 3D Printers (Update)

  • D. BirdEmail author
  • J. Laquidara
  • E. Caravaca
  • K. Luhmann
  • N. M. Ravindra
Conference paper
  • 482 Downloads
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

Formulating resins specifically for UV laser stereolithography (SLA) is a promising material development process in the additive manufacturing (AM) of enhanced gun propulsion charges due to the ability to fabricate complex geometries with high-dimensional resolution. Free radical initiated polymerization (FRP) incorporated into new and evolving SLA 3D printers is an ideal process for generating gun charges, but it requires formulators to pay specific attention to the monomer/oligomer selection, light source output, photoinitiator system, and additives to stabilize the liquid formulation and the resulting final polymer. Furthermore, formulations must have high energy density with acceptable mechanical properties in order to enhance the propellant performance, often represented in terms of impetus, or force exerted on the projectile. In this work, custom energetic SLA resins for propellants have been formulated, characterized, and processed on a Formlabs 1+ printer.

Keywords

UV curable resins Photo polymerization Additive manufacturing Gun propulsion charge 

References

  1. 1.
    Caravaca E, Keyser D, Adam C, Park D, Kaminsky D, Laquidara J (2016) Next generation propulsion charges for guns. US Army, ARDEC, Propulsion Technology and Prototyping DivisionGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yagci Y (2010) Photoinitiated polymerization: advances, challenges and opportunities. Macromolecules 43:6245–6260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chartier T et al (2012) Stereolithography process: influence of the rheology of silica suspensions and of the medium on polymerization kinetics—cured depth and width. J Eur Ceram Soc 32:1625–1634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kloosterboer JG (1988) Network formation by chain crosslinking photopolymerization and its application in electronics. Adv Polym Sci 84:1–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wu Y (2016) Photoinitiator basic chemistry. Introduction to formulating and products for LED cure and low migration. IGM Resins USA Inc.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Allcock HR, Lampe FW (ed) (1990) Contemporary polymer chemistry, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weiss P (1967) Photo-induced polymerization. Pure Appl Chem 15(3–4):587–600; Tehfe MA, Louradour F, Lalevee J, Fouassier J-P (2013) Photopolymerization reactions: on the way to a green and sustainable chemistry. Appl Sci 3:490–514Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fouassier J-P, Morlet-Savary F, Lalevee J, Allonas X, Ley C (2010) Dyes as photoinitiators or photosensitizers of polymerization reactions. Materials 3:5130–5142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Das NK, Mandal BM (1982) Methylene blue as a retarder of free radical polymerization: 1. Polymerization of acrylonitrile, methyl methacrylate and styrene. Polymer 23:1653–1658Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    https://us-store.acer.com/projectors. Accessed on 9 Sept 2019
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    Bird D, Robinette J, Occhifinto C, Caravaca E, Longo S, Crownover R (2017) Formulation of UV curable resins utilized in vat photo polymerization for the additive manufacturing of gun propulsion charge in 3D printers. US Army, ARDEC, Propulsion Technology and Prototyping DivisionGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Crownover R (2017) Viscoelastic properties of energetic material filled UV photo polymer resins and thermoplastic feed stock for the additive manufacturing of gun propulsion charges. US Army, ARDEC, Propulsion Technology and Prototyping DivisionGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Crownover R (2018) Mechanical properties of materials for the additive manufacturing of gun propulsion charges. US Army, ARDEC, Propulsion Technology and Prototyping DivisionGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Bird
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Laquidara
    • 1
  • E. Caravaca
    • 1
  • K. Luhmann
    • 1
  • N. M. Ravindra
    • 2
  1. 1.U.S. Army CCDC Picatinny ArsenalWharton, New JerseyUSA
  2. 2.New Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewark, New JerseyUSA

Personalised recommendations