Analysis of Solidification and Thermal-Mechanical Behaviors in Continuous Casting

  • John Resa
  • Matthew Moore
  • Xiang Zhou
  • Haibo Ma
  • Armin K. Silaen
  • Chenn Q. ZhouEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


Continuous casting (CC) is the most utilized steel making process today, but knowledge on the many complex phenomena that occur within the process could be gained. Issues such as transient flow patterns and immoderate amounts of localized stress can result in internal or external defects such as surface cracks. With the advancement in computational power, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide significant insights into solidification and solid stress within CC. This work will focus on solidification of the shell within the mold, and the stresses that occur within the solidified shell. Excessive stress on a thinning portion of the shell is one of the main catalysts in the case of a breakout so it is important to understand its behavior and overall impact. Solidification and thermal-mechanical models were developed using the commercial CFD and FEM software STAR-CCM+™. The main objective of this paper is to create a simplistic method for analyzing stress in a solidifying shell that takes into account temperature distribution from the melt.


Continuous casting Solidification Solid stress CFD 



The turbulence kinetic energy

\( \omega \)

The specific dissipation rate



\( {\vec{u}} \)


\( \mu \)


\( \sigma_{k} \)

Model value

\( \mu_{\text{t}} \)

The turbulent eddy viscosity

\( f_{{\beta^{ *} }} \)

Free-shear modification factor

\( \omega_{0} \)

Ambient turbulence value

\( k_{0} \)

Ambient turbulence value



\( \alpha^{*} \)

Model coefficient


Energy source per unit volume

\( {\vec{u}}_{\text{pull}} \)

Casting velocity


The enthalpy of the liquid-solid phase

\( h_{\text{s}} \)

The sensible heat


The latent heat of fusion

\( f_{\text{s}} \)

The relative solid volume fraction

\( f_{\text{cr}} \)

The critical relative solid volume fraction

\( T^{*} \)

The normalized temperature

\( T_{\text{s}} \)

The solid temperature

\( T_{\text{l}} \)

The liquid temperature

\( \mu \)

The effective viscosity of the mixture

\( \mu_{l} \)

The dynamic viscosity of the liquid


The crystal characteristics of the growths


Non-dimensional switching function


The shape factor for the dendritic growth

\( \sigma \)



Young’s Modulus

\( \varepsilon_{\text{i}} \)

Inelastic strain

\( \varepsilon_{\text{el}} \)

Elastic strain

\( \varepsilon_{\text{pl}} \)

Plastic strain

\( \varepsilon_{\text{th}} \)

Thermal strain



The authors would like to thank the Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium (SMSVC) members for funding this project. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest is also gratefully acknowledged for providing all the resources required for this work.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Resa
    • 1
  • Matthew Moore
    • 1
  • Xiang Zhou
    • 1
  • Haibo Ma
    • 1
  • Armin K. Silaen
    • 1
  • Chenn Q. Zhou
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Center for Innovation Through Visualization and Simulation, Purdue University NorthwestHammondUSA

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