Numerical Study of Raceway Shape and Size in a Model Blast Furnace

  • Xing Peng
  • Jingsong WangEmail author
  • Cong Li
  • Haibin Zuo
  • Xuefeng She
  • Guang Wang
  • Qingguo Xue
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


In ironmaking blast furnaces, hot air is injected through tuyeres to form a cavity, known as “raceway”. In this study, a three-dimensional transient numerical model has been developed to study the shape and size of the raceway in a packed particle bed. It is assumed that gas and solid (particle) phases are interpenetrating continuum in the model. Gas phase turbulence is described as a k-ε dispersed model. Gas phase stress considers its effective viscosity. The solid phase constitutive relationship is expressed as solid stress that is characterized by solid pressure, bulk viscosity, kinetic viscosity, collisional viscosity, and frictional viscosity. The effects of blast velocity and injection angle on the raceway were studied. The results demonstrate when air is injected through the tuyere, the raceway size first increases, then decreases with time, and finally stabilizes. The raceway size increases with the increase of blast velocity. The raceway shape depends on the injection angle, and the surface area of the raceway is largest when the injection angle is 5°.


Raceway shape Raceway size Euler multiphase flow Blast velocity Injection angle 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. U1960205) and State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy (No. 41618029).


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xing Peng
    • 1
  • Jingsong Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cong Li
    • 1
  • Haibin Zuo
    • 1
  • Xuefeng She
    • 1
  • Guang Wang
    • 1
  • Qingguo Xue
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Advanced MetallurgyUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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