Financial (De)Globalization and Financial Market (Dis)Integration

  • Dieter PesendorferEmail author


The chapter provides the background to the study and explores the lessons from two waves of financial globalization, the transition from the gold standard to the Bretton Woods System to the liberalization and deregulation of finance and the emergence of finance-dominated capitalism. It then discusses the major transformations in capitalism and the rise of finance-led capitalism leading to increased financial instability and the Global Financial Crisis. The chapter continues with an overview and critical evaluation of regulating finance after the crisis before exploring the challenges for Inclusive Capitalism and Sustainable Finance.


Financial globalization Bretton Woods Finance-led capitalism Financial regulation Neoliberalism Inclusive capitalism 


  1. Abdelal, R. & Ruggie, J.G. 2009, ‘The Principles of Embedded Liberalism: Social Legitimacy and Global Capitalism’ in D. Moss & J. Cisternino (eds.), New Perspectives on Regulation, The Tobin Project, Cambridge, MA, 153–164.Google Scholar
  2. Acharya, V.V., Beck, T., Evanoff, D.D., Kaufman, G.G., Portes, R. (eds.) 2014, The Social Value of the Financial Sector: Too Big to Fail or Just Too Big?, World Scientific, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  3. Admati, A. & Hellwig, M. 2013, The Bankers’ New Clothes: What’s Wrong with Banking and What to Do about It, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  4. Aglietta, M. 1998, ‘Capitalism at the Turn of the Century: Regulation Theory and the Challenge of Social Change’, New Left Review, Nov./Dec. 1998, no. I/232, 41–90.Google Scholar
  5. Aglietta, M. 2000, A Theory of Capitalist Regulation: The US Experience, new edition, Verso, London [1976].Google Scholar
  6. Aglietta, M. & Rebérioux, A. 2005, Corporate Governance Adrift: A Critique of Shareholder Value, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.Google Scholar
  7. Ali, S. 2012, ‘Re-defining Stewardship’, Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 19, no. 2, 207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aliber, R.Z. &Kindleberger, C.P. 2015, Manias, Panics and Crashes: A History of Financial Crises, 7th ed., Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke & New York.Google Scholar
  9. Alphand, H. et al. 1943, ‘Suggestions Regarding International Monetary Relations’, in J.K. Horsefield 1969, The International Monetary Fund 1945–1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation: Volume III: Documents, IMF, Washington, 97–102.Google Scholar
  10. Altvater, E. 2004, ‘The Growth Obsession’, in L. Panitch, C. et al. (eds.), The Globalization Decade: A Critical Reader, Merlin Press, London, 275–294.Google Scholar
  11. Altvater, E. 2005, Das Ende des Kapitalismus wie wir ihn kennen: Eine radikale Kapitalismuskritik, Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster.Google Scholar
  12. Altvater, E. & Mahnkopf, B. 1999, Grenzen der Globalisierung: Ökonomie, Ökologie und Politik in der Weltgesellschaft, 4th ed., Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster.Google Scholar
  13. Anand, A., Trebilcock, M. & Rosenstock, M. 2016, ‘Institutional Design and the New Systemic Risk in Banking Crises’, in A. Anand (ed.), Systemic Risk, Institutional Design, and the Regulation of Financial Markets, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1–37.Google Scholar
  14. Arcand, J.-L., Berkes, E. & Panizza, U. 2012, ‘Too Much Finance?’, IMF Working Paper WP/12/161, IMF, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  15. Arner, D.W. 2007, Financial Stability, Economic Growth, and the Role of Law, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  16. Ayres, I. & Braithwaite, J. 1992, Responsive Regulation: Transcending the Deregulation Debate, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  17. Bäcker, A.-S. 2019, ‘Are Toxic Chemicals Going Out of Fashion?’, 23 April 2019,
  18. Baker, A., Hudson, D. & Woodward, R. 2005, ‘Introduction: Financial Globalization and Multi-level Governance’, in A. Baker, D. Hudson & R. Woodward (eds.), Governing Financial Globalization: International Political Economy and Multi-level Governance, Routledge, Abingdon, 3–23.Google Scholar
  19. Baldwin, R.E. 2019, The Globotics Upheaval: Globalisation, Robotics and the Future of Work, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  20. Baudino, P., Goetschmann, R., Henry, J., Taniguchi, K. & Zhu, W. 2018, ‘Stress-testing Banks: A Comparative Analysis’, FSI Insights on Policy Implementation, no. 12, Financial Stability Institute, Bank for International Settlements, Basel,
  21. Baumann, M. 2001, ‘Zehn Jahre nach Rio: Das Ende der “wilden Globalisierung”?’, in Worldwatch Institute, Report Zur Lage der Welt 2001, Fischer, Frankfurt a.M., 7–41.Google Scholar
  22. Bell, S. & Hindmoor, A. 2015, Masters of the Universe, Slaves of the Market, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  23. Bello, W., Bullard, N. & Malhotra, K. (eds.) 2000, Global Finance: New Thinking on Regulating Speculative Capital Markets, Zed Books, London.Google Scholar
  24. Berger, A.N. & Roman, R.A. 2018, ‘Finance and the Real Economy: Evidence from the US’, in T. Beck & R. Levine (eds.), Handbook of Finance and Development, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 211–288.Google Scholar
  25. Bernanke, B.S. and Mishkin, F.S. 1997, ‘Inflation Targeting: A New Framework for Monetary Policy?’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 11, no. 2, 97–116.Google Scholar
  26. Bernanke, B.S., Geithner, T.F. & Paulson Jr., H.M. 2019, Firefighting: The Financial Crisis and its Lessons, Profile Books, London.Google Scholar
  27. Bhagwati, J. 2008, Termites in the Trading System: How Preferential Agreements Undermine Free Trade, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  28. Bianco, G. 2014, ‘Collective Action Clauses in the Eurozone: One Step Forward, Two Steps Back’, European Journal of Law Reform, vol. 14, no. 4, 713–727.Google Scholar
  29. BIS 2012, The Future of Financial Globalisation, 11th BIS Annual Conference 21–22 June 2012, BIS Papers no. 69, BIS, Basel.Google Scholar
  30. BIS 2016, Economic Resilience: A Financial Perspective, Nore submitted to the G20 on 7 November 2016, BIS,
  31. BIS 2018, Stress Testing Principles, Basel Committee on Banking Supervision,
  32. Bischoff, J., Deppe, F. & Kisker, K.-P. (eds.) 1998, Das Ende des Neoliberalismus?, VSA, Hamburg.Google Scholar
  33. Block, F. 2014, ‘Democratizing Finance’, Politics & Society, vol. 42, no. 1, 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Blodget, H. 2009, ‘Krugman’s Horrifying Solution: Make Banking Boring’, Business Insider, 10 April 2009.Google Scholar
  35. Blundell-Wignall, A., Atkinson, P. & Roulet, C. 2018, Globalisation and Finance at the Crossroads: The Financial Crisis, Regulatory Reform and the Future of Banking, Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.Google Scholar
  36. BoE 2018, Financial Stability Report, Bank of England, London.Google Scholar
  37. Bolton, P., Cecchetti, S., Danthine, J.-P. and Vives, X. 2019, Sound at Last? Assessing a Decade of Financial Regulation, Centre for Economic Policy Research, London.Google Scholar
  38. Bordo, M.D. & Eichengreen, B. 1993, ‘Preface’, in M.D. Bordo & B. Eichengreen (eds.), A Retrospective on the Bretton Woods System: Lessons for International Monetary Reform, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago & London, xi-xiii.Google Scholar
  39. Borio, C. 2003, ‘Towards a Macroprudential Framework for Financial Supervision and Regulation?’, BIS Working Paper no. 128, Bank for International Settlement, Basel, Scholar
  40. Borio, C. 2019, ‘On Money, Debt, Trust and Central Banking’, BIS Working Papers no. 763, Bank for International Settlement, Basel,
  41. Bourdieu, P., Eppler, E. Ohr, R., Zwickel, K. et al. 2001, Neue Wege der Regulierung: Vom Terror der Ökonomie zum Primat der Politik, VSA, Hamburg.Google Scholar
  42. Boyer, R. 1990, The Regulation School: A Critical Introduction, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Boyer, R. 2000, ‘Is a Finance-Led Growth Regime a Viable Alternative to Finance? A Preliminary Analysis’, Economy and Society, vol. 29, 111–145.Google Scholar
  44. Bower, J.L., Leonard, H.B. & Paine, L.S. 2011, Capitalism at Risk: Rethinking the Role of Business, Harvard Business Review Press, Boston, M.A.Google Scholar
  45. Braithwaite, J. 2008, Regulatory Capitalism: How It Works, Ideas for Making It Work Better, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.Google Scholar
  46. Braun, B., Gabor, D. and Hübner, M. 2018, ‘Governing Through Financial Markets: Towards a Critical Political Economy of Capital Markets Union’, Competition & Change, vol. 22, no. 2, 101–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Brundtland Report 1987, Our Common Future, Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, United Nations.Google Scholar
  48. Canadian Government. 1943, ‘Tentative Draft Proposals of Canadian Experts for an International Exchange Union’, in J.K. Horsefield 1969, The International Monetary Fund 1945–1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation: Volume III: Documents, IMF, Washington, 108–118.Google Scholar
  49. Carey, M. & Stulz, R.M. (eds.) 2006, The Risks of Financial Institutions, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.Google Scholar
  50. Carney, M. 2013, ‘The UK at the Heart of a Renewed Globalisation’, speech at an event to celebrate the 125 anniversary of the Financial Times, London, 24 October 2013,
  51. Carney, M. 2014a, ‘Inclusive Capitalism: Creating a Sense of the Systemic’, speech at the Conference on Inclusive Capitalism, London, 27 May 2014.Google Scholar
  52. Carney, M. 2014b, ‘The Future of Financial Reform’, speech at the 2014 Monetary Authority of Singapore Lecture, Singapore, 17 November 2014,
  53. Carney, M. 2019, ‘A Platform for Innovation’, speech at Innovate Finance Global Summit, London, 29 April 2019,
  54. Ceccetti, S.G. 2012, ‘Is Globalisation Great?’, in Bank for International Settlement, The Future of Financial Globalisation, BIS Papers no. 69, BIS.Google Scholar
  55. Ceccetti, S.G. & Kharroubi, E. 2015, ‘Why Does Financial Sector Growth Crowd Out Real Economic Growth?’, BIS Working Papers no. 490,
  56. Cerny, P.C. 1990, The Changing Architecture of Politics: Structure, Agency, and the Future of the State, Sage, London.Google Scholar
  57. Chandrasekhar, C.P. & Ghosh, J. 2013, ‘The Asian Financial Crisis, Financial Restructuring, and the Problem of Contagion’, in Wolfson, M.H. & Epstein, G.A. (eds.), The Handbook of the Political Economy of Financial Crises, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 311–325.Google Scholar
  58. Christensen, J., Shaxson, N. & Wigan, D. 2016, ‘The Finance Curse: Britain and the World Economy’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, vol. 18, no. 1, 255–269.Google Scholar
  59. Colciago, A., Samarina, A. & de Haan, J. 2018, ‘Central Bank Policies and Income and Wealth Inequality: A Survey’, DNB Working Paper no. 594, De Netherlandsche Bank, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  60. Coleman, W.D. 1996, Financial Services, Globalization and Domestic Policy Change: A Comparison of North America and the European Union, Macmillan Press, Basingstoke.Google Scholar
  61. Cournède, B., Denk, O. & Hoeller, P. 2015, ‘Finance and Inclusive Growth’, OECD Economic Policy Paper, no. 14, OECD, Paris.Google Scholar
  62. Crockett, A. 1997, The Theory and Practice of Financial Stability, Department of Economics Princeton University, Princeton.Google Scholar
  63. Crotty, J. & Epstein, G. 2009, ‘A Financial Precautionary Principle: New Rules for Financial Product Safety’, Wall Street Watch Working Paper, no. 1, Consumer Education Foundation.Google Scholar
  64. Culpepper, P.D. 2011, Quiet Politics and Business Power: Corporate Control in Europe and Japan, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  65. Dash, E. 2011, ‘Feasting on Paperwork’, New York Times, 8 September 2011.Google Scholar
  66. De Boissieu, C. 2017, ‘The Banking Union Revisited’, in R. Douady, C. Goulet & P.-C. Pradier (eds.), Financial Regulation in the EU: From Resilience to Growth, Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 85–103.Google Scholar
  67. Decressin, J., Faruqee, H. & Fonteyne, W. (eds) 2007, Integrating Europe’s Financial Markets, IMF, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  68. Dell’Erba, M. 2017, ‘The Regulation of CCPs in Europe: The European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR)’, in R. Douady, C. Goulet & P.-C. Pradier (eds.), Financial Regulation in the EU: From Resilience to Growth, Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 355–382.Google Scholar
  69. Demirgüç-Kunt, A. & Kane, E.J. 2002, ‘Cross-country Evidence on Deposit-Insurance’, Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, vol. 42, 695–699.Google Scholar
  70. Dempster, M.A.H. 2018, ‘Review of Mervyn King’s The End of Alchemy: Money, Banking and the Future of the Global Economy’, SSRN:
  71. Dennison, S., Leonard, M. & Lury, A. 2019, ‘What Europeans Really Feel: The Battle for the Political System’, ECFR Policy Brief, 16 May 2019,
  72. Dent, K., Westwood, B. & Segoviano, M. 2016, ‘Stress Testing of Banks: An Introduction’, Quarterly Bulletin Q3, Bank of England, London.Google Scholar
  73. Di Girolamo, F.E., Campolongo, F., De Spiegeleer, J. & Schoutens, W. 2017, ‘Contingent Conversion Convertible Bond: New Avenues to Raise Bank Capital’, International Journal of Financial Engineering, vol. 4, no. 1.Google Scholar
  74. Dixon, H. 2010, ‘Gordon Brown: flawed saviour of financial system’, Reuters blog, 12 May 2010.Google Scholar
  75. Dombret, A. 2017, ‘Can we manage with less? The debate on greater proportionality in regulation’, presentation to board members of Baden-Württemberg savings banks,
  76. Dooley, M.P., Folkerts-Landau, D. and Garber, P. 2003, ‘An Essay on the Revised Bretton Woods System’, NBER Working Paper 9971, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  77. Dornbusch, R. 1993, ‘Comment’, in M.D. Bordo and B. Eichengreen (eds.), A Retrospective on the Bretton Woods System: Lessons for International Monetary Reform, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago & London, 99–104.Google Scholar
  78. Drezner, D.W. 2014, The System Worked: How the World Stopped another Great Depression, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  79. Dullien, S., Herr, H. & Kellermann, C. 2011, Decent Capitalism: A Blueprint for Reforming our Economies, Pluto Press, London.Google Scholar
  80. Eatwell, J. & Taylor, L. 1998, ‘International Capital Markets and the Future of Economic Policy’, paper prepared for the Ford Foundation project International Capital Markets and the Future of Economic Policy, Center for Economic Policy Analysis, New York, Institute of Public Policy Research, London.Google Scholar
  81. Eatwell, J. & Taylor, L. 2000, Global Finance at Risk: The Case for International Regulation, New Press, New York.Google Scholar
  82. Eatwell, J. & Taylor, L. 2002, ‘A World Financial Authority’, in J. Eatwell & L. Taylor (eds.), International Capital Markets: Systems in Transition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 15–40.Google Scholar
  83. EBA 2018, 2018 EU-Wide Stress Test Results, 2 November 2018, EBA, London.Google Scholar
  84. ECB 2019, ‘ECB 2018 Stress Test Analysis Shows Improved Capital Basis of Significant Euro Area Banks’, ECB Press Release, 1 February 2019.Google Scholar
  85. Eichengreen, B. 1996, Globalizing Capital: A History of the International Monetary System, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  86. Eichengreen, B. 1997, ‘The Bretton Woods System: Paradise Lost?’, in B. Eichengreen & M. Flandreau (eds.), The Gold Standard in Theory and History, 2nd ed., Routledge, New York & Abingdon, 313–328.Google Scholar
  87. Eichengreen, B. 2006, ‘Managing the World Economy in the 1990s’, in P.W. Rhode & G. Toniolo (eds.), The Global Economy in the 1990s: A Long-run Perspective, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 43–68.Google Scholar
  88. Eichengreen, B. & Flandreau, M. 1997, The Gold Standard in Theory and History, 2nd ed., Routledge, New York.Google Scholar
  89. Eichengreen, B. 2007, Global Imbalances and the Lessons of Bretton Woods, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  90. Eichengreen, B. 2011, Exorbitant Privilege: The Rise and Fall of the Dollar, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  91. Eichengreen, B. & Kenen, P.B.1994, ‘Managing the World Economy under the Bretton Woods System: An Overview’, in P.B. Kenen (ed.) Managing the World Economy: Fifty Years after Bretton Woods, Institute for International Economics, Washington, D.C., 3–57.Google Scholar
  92. Elkins, Z., Guzman, A.T. & Simmons, B.A. 2006, ‘Competing for Capital: The Diffusion of Bilateral Investment Treaties, 1960–2000’, International Organization, vol. 60, 811–846.Google Scholar
  93. Enoch, C., Everaert, L., Tressel, T. & Zhou, J. (eds) 2014, From Fragmentation to Financial Integration in Europe, IMF, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  94. EPRS 2019, ‘Single-limb collective action clauses: A short introduction’, EP Briefing, European Parliamentary Research Service, July 2019, PE 637.974.Google Scholar
  95. Epstein, G.A. 2005, ‘Introduction’, in Epstein, G.A. (ed), Financialization and the World Economy, 3–16, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  96. Epstein, G. & Crotty, J. 2009, ‘Controlling Dangerous Financial Products through a Financial Pre-Cautionary Principle’, Amherst, Department of Economics and Political Economy Research Institute (PERI), University of Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  97. European Council 2018, ‘Eurogroup report to Leaders on EMU deepening’, Press Release, 4 December 2018.Google Scholar
  98. European Court of Auditors 2019, ‘EU-wide Stress Tests for Banks: Unparralleled Amount of Information on Banks Provided but Greater Coordination and Focus on Risks Needed’, Special Report no. 10, Luxembourg,
  99. Evanoff, D.D., Hoelscher, D.S. & Kaufman, G.G. (eds.) 2009, Globalization and Systemic Risk, World Scientific, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  100. Fama, E. 1965, ‘The Behavior of Stock-Market Prices’, The Journal of Business, vol. 38, no. 1, 34–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Fama, E.F. 1970, ‘Efficient Capital Markets: A Review of Theory and Empirical Work’, The Journal of Finance, vol. 25, no. 2, 383–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. FDIC 1998, A Brief History of Deposit Insurance in the United States, FDIC, Washington, D.C.,
  103. Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission 2011, The Financial Crisis Inquiry Report, Final Report of the National Commission on the Causes of the Financial and Economic Crisis in the United States, PublicAffairs, New York.Google Scholar
  104. Fougner, T. 2006, ‘The State, International Competitiveness and Neoliberal Globalisation: Is There a Future Beyond ‘the Competition State’?’, Review of International Studies, vol. 32, 165–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Fukuyama, F. 1989, ‘The End of History?’, The National Interest,Google Scholar
  106. Fukuyama, F. 1992, The End of History and the Last Man, Penguin Books, London.Google Scholar
  107. Franck, S.D. 2007, ‘Empirically Evaluating Claims About Investment Treaty Arbitration’, North Carolina Law Review, vol. 86, no. 1, 1–88.Google Scholar
  108. Friedman, J. (ed.) 2011, What Caused the Financial Crisis, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  109. Friedman, M. 1969, The Optimum Quantity of Money and Other Essays, Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  110. Friedman, M. & Schwartz, A. 1963, A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  111. FSA 2009, The Turner Review: A Regulatory Response to the Global Banking Crisis, Financial Services Authority, London.Google Scholar
  112. Galbraith, J.K. 1975, Money: Whence It Came, Where It Went, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  113. Gerding, E.F. 2014, Law, Bubbles, and Financial Regulation, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  114. Gill, I.S. & Raiser, M. et al. 2012, Golden Growth: Restoring the Lustre of the European Economic Model, World Bank, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  115. Goodhart, C. 2010, ‘How Should We Regulate the Financial Sector?’, in A. Turner et al., The Future of Finance: The LSE Report, LSE, London, 153–176.Google Scholar
  116. Grant, W. & Wilson, G.K. (eds.) 2012, The Consequences of the Global Financial Crisis: The Rhetoric of Reform and Regulation, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  117. Greenspan, A. 2007, The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World, Allen Lane, London.Google Scholar
  118. Greenspan, A. & Wooldridge, A. 2018, Capitalism in America: A History, Allen Lane, London.Google Scholar
  119. Griffith-Jones, S., Ocampo, J.A. & Stiglitz, J.E. (eds.) 2010, Time for a Visible Hand: Lessons from the 2008 World Financial Crisis, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  120. Guttmann, R. 2016, Finance-led Captialism: Shadow Banking, Re-Regulation, and the Future of Global Markets, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.Google Scholar
  121. Haines, W.W. 1943, ‘Keynes, White, and History’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 58, no. 1, 120–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Haldane, A.G. 2012, ‘On Being the Right Size’, Bank of England, speech, Institute of Economic Affairs, Pall Mall, 25 October 2012,
  123. Hall, P.A. (ed.) 1989, The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Keynesianism across Nations, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  124. Hall, P.A. and Soskice, D. (eds) 2001, Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  125. Hansmann, H. & Kraakman, R. 2001, ‘The End of History for Corporate Law’, Geogetown Law Journal, vol. 89, no. 2, 439–468.Google Scholar
  126. Haq, M. ul, Kaul, I. & Grunberg, I. 1996, The Tobin Tax: Coping with Financial Volatility, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  127. Hayek, F.A. 1976, Denationalisation of Money—The Argument Refined: An Analysis of the Theory and Practice of Concurrent Currencies, 3rd ed., Institute of Economic Affairs, London [1990].Google Scholar
  128. Hein, E. 2012, The Macroeconomics of Finance-dominated Capitalism—and its Critics, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.Google Scholar
  129. Helleiner, E. 1994, States and the Reemergence of Global Finance: From Bretton Woods to the 1990s, Cornell University Press, Ithaca & London.Google Scholar
  130. Helleiner, E. 1996, ‘Post-Globalization: Is the Financial Liberalization Trend Likely to be Reversed?’, in R. Boyer & D. Drache (eds.), States Against Markets: The Limits of Globalization, Routledge, London, 193–210.Google Scholar
  131. Helleiner, E. 2005, ‘The Evolution of the International Monetary and Financial System’, in J. Ravenhill (ed.), Global Political Economy, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 151–175.Google Scholar
  132. Henry Jackson Initiative for Inclusive Capitalism 2012, Towards a More Inclusive Capitalism, Henry Jackson Initiative, London.Google Scholar
  133. Herndon, T., Ash, M. & Pollin, R. 2014, ‘Does High Public Debt Consistently Stifle Economic Growth? A Critique of Reinhart and Rogoff’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, vol. 38, no. 3, 257–279.Google Scholar
  134. Hirst, P. & Thompson, G. 1996, Globalization in Question, Polity, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  135. Hopkin, J. & Shaw, K.A. 2016, ‘Organized Combat or Structural Advantage? The Politics of Inequality and the Winner-Take-All Economy in the United Kingdom’, Politics & Society, vol. 44, no. 3, 345–371.Google Scholar
  136. House of Representatives, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform 2008, The Financial Crisis and the Role of Federal Regulators, Stenographic Minutes, 23 October 2008, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  137. Huffschmid, J. 2009, ‘Europäische Perspektiven im Kampf gegen die Wirtschafts- und Finanzkrise’, in E. Altvater et al., Krisen Analysen, VSA, Hamburg, 105–118.Google Scholar
  138. Ikenberry, G.J. 1993, ‘The Political Origins of Bretton Woods’, in M.D. Bordo & B. Eichengreen (eds.), A Retrospective on the Bretton Woods System: Lessons for International Monetary Reform, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago & London, 155–182.Google Scholar
  139. IMF 2001, Financial Sector Consolidation in Emerging Markets, Chapter 5, International Capital Market Report, IMF, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  140. IMF 2010, ‘A Fair and Substantial Contribution by the Financial Sector’, Final Report for the G20,
  141. IMF 2013, ‘Key Aspects of Macroprudential Policy’,
  142. IMF 2014, ‘Strengthening the Contractual Framework to Address Collective Action Problems in Sovereign Debt Restructuring’, IMF, Washington, D.C.,
  143. IMF 2018, Global Financial Stability Report: A Decade after the Global Financial Crisis: Are We Safer?, IMF, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  144. IMF 2019, ‘Corporate Taxation in the Global Economy’, IMF Policy Paper, IMF, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  145. International Forum on Globalization 2002, Alternatives to Economic Globalization, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  146. Irwin, D.A., Mavroidis, P.C. & Sykes, A.O. 2008, The Genesis of the GATT, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  147. Isard, P. 2005, Globalization and the International Financial System: What’s Wrong and What Can Be Done, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  148. Jessop, B. 2018, ‘Neoliberalization, Uneven Development, and Brexit: Further Reflections on the Organic Crisis of the British State and Society’, European Planning Studies, vol. 26, no. 9, 1728–1746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Jomo, K.S. (ed.) 1998, Tigers in Trouble: Financial Governance, Liberalisation and Crises in East Asia, Zed Books, London.Google Scholar
  150. Jordan, C. 2014, International Capital Markets: Law and Institutions, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  151. Kapstein, E.B. 1994, Governing the Global Economy: International Finance and the State, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  152. Kautsky, K. 1927, The Materialist Conception of History, abridged, annotated, and introduced by John Kautsky, Yale University Press, New Haven [1988].Google Scholar
  153. Kelsey, J. 2014, ‘Memorandum on Leaked TISA Financial Services Text’,
  154. Keynes, J.M. 1936, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
  155. Keynes, J.M. 1942, ‘Proposals for an International Currency (or Clearing) Union’, in J.K. Horsefield (ed.) 1969, The International Monetary Fund 1945–1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation, Volume III: Documents, International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C., 3–18.Google Scholar
  156. Keynes, J.M. 1943, ‘Proposals for an International Clearing Union’, in J.K. Horsefield (ed.) 1969, The International Monetary Fund 1945–1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation, Volume III: Documents, International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C., 19–36.Google Scholar
  157. Kindleberger, C.P. 1987, The World in Depression 1929–1939, Penguin, Harmondsworth.Google Scholar
  158. King, M. 2004, ‘Comments on ‘Risk and Uncertainty in Monetary Policy’ by Alan Greenspan’, AEA Annual Conference, Bank of England.Google Scholar
  159. King, M. 2016, The End of Alchemy: Money, Banking and the Future of the Global Economy, Little, Brown, London.Google Scholar
  160. Kirshner, J. 2003, ‘The Inescapable Politics of Money’, in J. Kirshner (ed.), Monetary Orders: Ambiguous Economics, Ubiquitous Politics, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y., 3–24.Google Scholar
  161. Klein, N. 2007, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Penguin Books, London.Google Scholar
  162. Kleinheisterkamp, J. 2015, ‘Investment Treaty Law and the Fear for Sovereignty: Transnational Challenges and Solutions’, The Modern Law Review, vol. 78, no. 5, 793–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Kondratieff, N.D. 1926, ‘Die langen Wellen der Konjunktur’, Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik, vol. 56, no. 3, 573–609.Google Scholar
  164. Krippner, G.R. 2011, Capitalizing on Crisis: The Political Origins of The Rise of Finance, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  165. Krueger, A. 2003, ‘Sovereign Debt Restructuring: Messy or Messier?’, remarks by the IMF First Deputy Managing Director at the Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association, 4 January 2003, IMF, Washington, D.C.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Krugman, P. 2009, ‘Making Banking Boring’, New York Times, 9 April 2009,
  167. Laeven, L. 2004, ‘The Political Economy of Deposit Insurance’, Journal of Financial Services Research, vol. 26, no. 3, 201–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Laeven, L. & Valencia, F. 2012, ‘Systemic Banking Crises Database: An Update’, IMF Working Paper, WP/12/163, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC,
  169. Lagarde, C. 2014, ‘Economic Inclusion and Financial Integrity—an Address to the Conference on Inclusive Capitalism’, speech by Christine Lagarde, Managing Director, International Monetary Fund, May 27, 2014,
  170. Lagarde, C. 2019, ‘Governing Finance: Redefining a Broader Sense of Purpose’, in A. Gonzáles & M. Jansen (eds.), Women Shaping Global Economic Governance, CEPR Press, London, 9–11.Google Scholar
  171. Lane, P. 2013, ‘Financial Globalisation and the Crisis’, Open Economies Review, vol. 24, no. 3, 555–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Lane, P.R. & Milesi-Ferretti, G.M. 2008, ‘New Perspectives on Financial Globalization: The Drivers of Financial Globalization’, American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings, vol. 98, no. 2, 327–332.Google Scholar
  173. Lapavitsas, C. 2013, Profiting Without Producing: How Finance Exploits Us All, Verso, London.Google Scholar
  174. Lenza, M. & Slacalek, J. 2018, ‘How does monetary policy affect income and wealth inequality? Evidence from quantitative easing in the euro area’, Working Paper Series no. 2190, ECB,
  175. Leon, G.C. 2007, ‘Stigmata: The Stain of Sarbanes-Oxley on U.S. Capital Markets’, Duquesne Business Law Journal, vol. 9, 125–182.Google Scholar
  176. Levi-Faur, D. & Jordana, J. (eds.) 2005, The Rise of Regulatory Capitalism: The Global Diffusion of a New Order, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 598. Sage, Thousand Oaks.Google Scholar
  177. Litan, R.E. & Schramm, C.J. 2012, Better Capitalism: Renewing the Entrepreneurial Strength of the American Economy, Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  178. Lounsbury, M. & Hirsch, P.M. (eds.) 2010, Markets on Trial: The Economic Sociology of the US Financial Crisis, Emerald, Bingley.Google Scholar
  179. Lucatelli, A. 1997, Finance and World Order: Financial Fragility, Systemic Risk and Transnational Regimes, Greenwood Press, Westport.Google Scholar
  180. Macartney, H. 2011, Variegated Neoliberalism: EU Varieties of Capitalism and International Political Economy, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  181. Malkiel, B.G. 2003, ‘The Efficient Market Hypothesis and Its Critics’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 17, no. 1, 59–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Marauhn, T. 2006, ‘Introduction: The Regulatory Dilemma in International Financial Relations’, in R. Grote & T. Marauhn (eds.), The Regulation of International Financial Markets: Perspectives for Reform, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1–23.Google Scholar
  183. Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1848, Manifesto of the Communist Party,
  184. McKinnon, R.I. 1973, Money and Capital in Economic Development, Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  185. Meadows, D., Meadows, D., Zahn, E. & Milling, P. 1972, The Limits to Growth, Universe Books, New York.Google Scholar
  186. Meier, G.M. 1982, Problems of a World Monetary Order, Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York.Google Scholar
  187. Minsky, H. 1975, John Maynard Keynes, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  188. Minsky, H. 1986, Stabilizing an Unstable Economy, Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  189. Mirowski, P. & Plehwe, D. 2009, The Road From Mont Pèlerin: The Making of the Neoliberal Thought Collective, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  190. Mishel, L. & Schieder, J. 2017, ‘CEO Pay Remains High Relative to the Pay of Typical Workers and High-Wage Earners’, Economic Policy Institute, Washington, D.C.,
  191. Mishkin, F.S. 2006, The Next Great Globalization, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  192. Montegino, J.A. & Epstein, G. 2015, ‘Did Quantitative Easing Increase Income Inequality?’, Working Paper no. 28, Institute for New Economic Thinking,
  193. Morgenson, G. & Rosner, J. 2011, Reckless Endangerment, Times Books, New York.Google Scholar
  194. Obstfeld, M. 2009, ‘International Finance and Growth in Developing Countries: What Have We Learned?’, NBER Working Paper Series 14691,
  195. Obstfeld, M. 2015, ‘Trilemmas and Trade-Offs: Living with Financial Globalisation’, BIS Working Papers, no. 480, Bank for International Settlement, Basel.Google Scholar
  196. OECD, World Bank & UN Environment 2018, Financing Climate Futures: Rethinking Infrastructure, OECD, Paris.Google Scholar
  197. Osborne, D. & Gaebler, T. 1993, Reinventing Government, Plume, New York.Google Scholar
  198. Ostry, J.D., Loungani, P. & Furceri, D. 2016, ‘Neoliberalism. Oversold?’, Finance & Development, June 2016, 38–41.Google Scholar
  199. Panitch, L. and Gindin, S. 2008, ‘Finance and American Empire’, in L. Panitch and M. Konings (eds.), American Empire and the Political Economy of Global Finance, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.Google Scholar
  200. Pesendorfer, D. 2012, ‘Good-Bye Neoliberalism? Contested Policy Responses to Uncertain Consequences of the 2007–2009 Financial Crisis’, in A. Kern & R. Dhumale (eds.), Research Handbook on International Financial Regulation, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 414–434.Google Scholar
  201. Pesendorfer, D. 2013a, ‘Beyond Financialisation? How Direct Regulation Will Transform the Future of Financial Market Structure’, Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly, vol. 64, no. 2, 255–275.Google Scholar
  202. Pesendorfer, D. 2013b, ‘Financial Taxes and the Sand in the Wheels of Financialization: Legal Challenges for the EU Directive Implementing Enhanced Cooperation in the Area of Financial Transaction Tax’, European Review of Public Law, vol. 25, no. 2, 619–653.Google Scholar
  203. Pesendorfer, D. 2014, ‘Beyond Financialisation? Transformative Strategies for More Sustainable Financial Markets in the European Union’, European Journal of Law Reform, vol. 16, no. 4, 692–712.Google Scholar
  204. Pettifor, A. 2006, The Coming First World Debt Crisis, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.Google Scholar
  205. Phillips, K. 2008, Bad Money: Reckless Finance, Failed Politics, and the Global Crisis of American Capitalism, Penguin, New York.Google Scholar
  206. Picciotto, S. 2011, Regulating Global Corporate Capitalism, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  207. Piketty, T. 2014, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, M.A.Google Scholar
  208. Polanyi, K. 1944, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origin of Our Time, Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 1957.Google Scholar
  209. Pomfret, R. 1997, The Economics of Regional Trade Agreements, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  210. Porter, M. 1990, The Competitive Advantage of Nations, Macmillan Press, London.Google Scholar
  211. Public Citizen 2015, ‘TPP Financial Stability Threats Unveiled: It’s Worse than We Thought’,
  212. Rappaport, A. 2011, Saving Capitalism from Short-Termism: How to Build Long-Term Value and Take Back our Financial Future, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  213. Ratnovski, L. 2013, ‘Competition Policy for Modern Banks’, IMF Working Paper 13/126, IMF, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  214. Reinhart, C.M. & Rogoff, K.S. 2009, This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  215. Ricardo, D. 1817, The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, Dent, London [1987].Google Scholar
  216. Ricks, M. 2016, The Money Problem: Rethinking Financial Regulation, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  217. Ridao-Cano & Bodewig 2018, Growing United: Upgrading Europe’s Convergence Machine, World Bank Report on the European Union, World Bank, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  218. Roche, D. & McKee, B. 2007, New Monetarism, Independent Strategy.Google Scholar
  219. Rodrik, D. 1998, ‘Who Needs Capital-Account Convertibility?’, in S. Fischer et al., Should the IMF Pursue Capital-Account Convertibility?, Princeton Univesity Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  220. Rodrik, D. 2011, The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy, W.W. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  221. Roubini, N. & Mihm, S. 2010, Crisis Economics: A Crash Course in the Future of Finance, Allen Lane, London.Google Scholar
  222. Ruggie, J.G. 1982, ‘International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism and the Postwar Economic Order’, International Organization, vol. 36, no. 2, 379–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Sauer, T., Ötsch, S. & Wahl, P. (eds.) 2009, Das Casino schließen: Analysen und Alternativen zum Finanzmarktkapitalismus, VSA, Hamburg.Google Scholar
  224. Sauvé, P. 2014, ‘Towards a Plurilateral Trade in Services Agreement (TISA): Challenges and Prospects’, Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy, vol. 5, no. 1, 1–16.Google Scholar
  225. Schumpeter, J.A. 1942, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, Routledge, London [1992].Google Scholar
  226. Schwarcz, S.L. 2016, ‘Perspectives on Regulating Systemic Risk’, in A. Anand (ed.), Systemic Risk, Institutional Design, and the Regulation of Financial Markets, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 39–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Shaxson, N. 2018, The Finance Curse, The Bodley Head, London.Google Scholar
  228. Sheng, A. 2009, From Asian to Global Financial Crisis: An Asian Regulator’s View of Unfettered Finance in the 1990s and 2000s, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  229. Sherman, H.J. 1991, The Business Cycle: Growth and Crisis under Capitalism, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  230. Shiller, R.J. 2000, Irrational Exuberance, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  231. Shiller, R.J. 2003, The New Financial Order: Risk in the 21st Century, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  232. Shiller, R.J. 2012, Finance and the good Society, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  233. Shonfield, A. 1965, Modern Capitalism: The Changing Balance of Public and Private Power, Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  234. Skidelsky, R. 2018, Money and Government: A Challenge to Mainstream Economics, Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  235. Smith, A. 1776, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  236. Soros, G. 2008, The New Paradigm for Financial Markets: The Credit Crisis of 2008 and What It Means, PublicAffairs, New York.Google Scholar
  237. Steil, B. 2013, The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  238. Stiglitz, J. 2002, Globalization and Its Discontents, W.W. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  239. Stiglitz, J.E. & Members of a UN Commission of Financial Experts 2010, The Stiglitz Report: Reforming the International Monetary and Financial Systems in the Wake of the Global Crisis, New Press, New York.Google Scholar
  240. Sutherland, P., Bhagwati, J., Botchwey, K., FitzGerald, N., Hamada, K., Jackson, J., Lafer, C. & de Montbrial, T. 2004, The Future of the WTO: Addressing Institutional Challenges in the New Millennium, WTO, Geneva,
  241. Strange, S. 1986, Casino Capitalism, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  242. Strange, S. 1998, Mad Money: When Markets Outgrow Governments, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  243. Streeck, W. 2015, ‘The Rise of the European Consolidation State’, MPIfG Discussion Paper 15/1, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies, Cologne.Google Scholar
  244. TCFD 2017, Recommendations of the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures: Final Report, 29 June 2017,
  245. TCFD 2019, Status Report 2019, Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures,
  246. Tett, G. 2009, Fool’s Gold, Little Brown, London.Google Scholar
  247. Tinbergen, J. 1965, International Economic Integration, 2nd ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  248. Toporowski, J. 2005, Theories of Financial Disturbance, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.Google Scholar
  249. Toporowski, J. 2018, ‘Marx, Finance and Political Economy’, Review of Political Economy, vol. 30, no. 3, 416–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Tucker, P. 2018, Unelected Power: The Quest for Legitimacy in Central Banking and the Regulatory State, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  251. Tucker, P. 2019, ‘Is the Financial System Sufficiently Resilient: A Research Programme and Policy Agenda’, BIS Working Paper no. 792, BIS, Basel,
  252. Turner, A. 2010, ‘What Do Banks Do? Why Do Credit Booms and Busts Occur? What Can Public Policy Do About It?’, in A. Turner et al., The Future of Finance: The LSE Report, LSE, London, 3–63.Google Scholar
  253. Turner, A. 2012, Economics after the Crisis: Objectives and Means, MIT Press, Cambridge, M.A.Google Scholar
  254. Turner, D. & Ollivaud, P. 2018, ‘The Output Cost of the Global Financial Crisis’, OECD Ecoscope Blog,
  255. UNCTAD 2016, ‘Sovereign Debt Restructurings: Lessons Learned from Legislative Steps Taken by Certain Countries and other Appropriate Action to Reduce the Vulnerability of Sovereigns to Holdout Creditors’, UNCTAD, New York,
  256. Vickers, J. 2019, ‘The Case for Market-based Stress Tests’, VOX CEPR Policy Portal, 14 June 2019,
  257. Vogel, S.K. 1996, Freer Markets, More Rules: Regulatory Reform in Advanced Industrial Countries, Ithaca, Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  258. Weiss, L. 1998, The Myth of the Powerless State, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y.Google Scholar
  259. White, H.D. 1942, ‘Preliminary Draft Proposal for a United Nations Stabilization Fund and a Bank for Reconstruction and Development of the United and Associated Nations’, in J.K. Horsefield (ed.) 1969, The International Monetary Fund 1945–1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation, Volume III: Documents, International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C., 37–82.Google Scholar
  260. White, H.D. 1943, ‘Preliminary Draft Outline of a Proposal for an International Stabilization Fund of the United and Associated Nations’, in J.K. Horsefield (ed.) 1969, The International Monetary Fund 1945–1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation, Volume III: Documents, International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C., 83–96.Google Scholar
  261. Williamson, J. 1990, ‘What Washington Means by Policy Reform’, in J. Williamson (ed.), Latin American Adjustment: How Much has Happened?, Institute for International Economics, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  262. Wolf, M. 2008, ‘Keynes offers us the best way to think about the financial crisis’, Financial Times, 23 December 2008.Google Scholar
  263. Woods, N. 2006, The Globalizers: The IMF, the World Bank, and Their Borrowers, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  264. World Bank 2012, Inclusive Green Growth: The Pathway to Sustainable Development, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  265. WTO 1997, ‘Successful Conclusion of the WTO’s Financial Services Negotiations’, World Trade Organization, WTO Press Release, Press/86, 15 December 1997.Google Scholar
  266. Wray, L.R. 1998, Understanding Modern Money: The Key to Full Employment and Price Stability, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.Google Scholar
  267. Wray, L.R. 2011, ‘Keynes after 75 Years: Rethinking Money as a Public Monopoly’, Working Paper no. 658, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, Annadale-on-Hudson, N.Y.,
  268. Wray, L.R. 2013, ‘A Minskyan Road to Financial Reform’, in M.H. Wolfson & G.A. Epstein (eds.), The Handbook of the Political economy of Financial Crises, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 696–710.Google Scholar
  269. Wray, L.R. 2018, ‘Functional Finance: A Comparison of the Evolution of the Positions of Hyman Minsky and Abba Lerner’, Working Paper no. 900, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, Annadale-on-Hudson, N.Y.,
  270. Zingales, L. 2012, A Capitalism for the People: Recapturing the Lost Genius of American Prosperity, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  271. Zingales, L. 2015, ‘Does Finance Benefit Society?’, NBER Working Paper 20894, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA,
  272. Žižek, S. 2009, First as Tragedy, Then as Farce, Verso, London.Google Scholar
  273. Zoellick, R. 2010, ‘The G20 Must Look Beyond Bretton Woods II’, Financial Times, 7 November 2010.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of LawQueen’s University BelfastBelfastUK

Personalised recommendations