BUNKER: A Blockchain-based trUsted VNF pacKagE Repository

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11819)


Current projects applying blockchain technology to enhance the trust of NFV environments do not consider the VNF repository. However, the blockchain’s properties can enhance trust by allowing to verify a VNF package’s integrity without relying (a) on a Trusted Third Party (TTP) for remote attestation or (b) a secure database. This paper presents BUNKER, a Blockchain-based trUsted VNF packagE Repository, intended to be integrated with traditional database-based package verification environments, acting as a trusted repository containing VNF package information. Moreover, BUNKER allows users to acquire VNFs without the need of a TTP using an Ethereum Smart Contract (SC). The SC automatically transfers license fees to the vendor once a VNF is acquired, and sends the VNF package’s link to the buyer before verifying its integrity.


Network Functions Virtualization Blockchain Repository 


  1. 1.
    Bocek, T., Stiller, B.: Smart contracts - blockchains in the wings. In: Linnhoff-Popien, C., Schneider, R., Zaddach, M. (eds.) Digital Marketplaces Unleashed, pp. 169–184. Springer, Heidelberg (2018). Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bondan, L., et al.: FENDE: marketplace-based distribution, execution, and life cycle management of VNFs. IEEE Commun. Mag. 57, 13–19 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bozic, N., Pujolle, G., Secci, S.: Securing virtual machine orchestration with blockchains. In: 1st Cyber Security in Networking Conference, CSNet 2017, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, pp. 1–8, October 2017Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buterin, V.: Ethereum White Paper. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  5. 5.
    Demir, O., Xiong, W., Zaghloul, F., Szefer, J.: Survey of approaches for security verification of hardware/software systems. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/846 (2016). Accessed 4 July 2019
  6. 6.
    Ethereum Foundation: Solidity - Solidity 0.58.0 Documentation. Accessed 28 Apr 2019
  7. 7.
    Franco, M.F., Scheid, E.J., Granville, L.Z., Stiller, B.: BRAIN: blockchain-based reverse auction for infrastructure supply in virtual network functions-as-a-service. In: IFIP Networking 2019, Warsaw, Poland, pp. 1–9, May 2019Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gruhler, A., Rodrigues, B., Stiller, B.: A reputation scheme for a blockchain-based network cooperative defense. In: IFIP/IEEE Symposium on Integrated Network and Service Management, IM 2019, Washington, USA, pp. 71–79, April 2019Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Keller, M.: Blockchain-based Trusted VNF Package Repository (2019). Accessed 4 July 2019
  10. 10.
    Nakamoto, S.: Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System (2009). Accessed 22 Mar 2019
  11. 11.
    Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV) ETSI Industry Specification Group (ISG): ETSI GS NFV-MAN 001–V1.1.1 - Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV); Management and Orchestration (2014). Accessed 1 Apr 2019
  12. 12.
    Ravidas, S., Lal, S., Oliver, I., Hippelainen, L.: Incorporating trust in NFV: addressing the challenges. In: 20th Conference on Innovations in Clouds, Internet and Networks, ICIN 2017, pp. 87–91, March 2017Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rebello, G.A.F., Alvarenga, I.D., de Teleinformatica e Automacão, G.: SINFONIA: Gerenciamento Seguro de Funcoes Virtualizadas de Rede atraves de Corrente de Blocos. In: Anais do I Workshop em Blockchain: Teoria, Tecnologias e Aplicacoes (WBlockchain - SBRC 2018), vol. 1. SBC, Brasil, pp. 0–14, May 2018Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Scheid, E.J., Stiller, B.: Leveraging smart contracts for automatic SLA compensation - the case of NFV environment. In: IFIP 12th International Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security, AIMS 2018, pp. 70–74. IEEE, Munich, June 2018Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    The Linux Foundation: OPNFV: An Open Platform to Accelerate NFV. Accessed 17 May 2019
  16. 16.
    Xilouris, G., et al.: T-NOVA: a marketplace for virtualized network functions. In: 2014 European Conference on Networks and Communications, EuCNC 2014, Bologna, Italy, pp. 1–5, June 2014Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Communication Systems Group CSG, Department of Informatics IfIUniversity of Zurich UZHZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations