Investigating Non-classical Correlations Between Decision Fused Multi-modal Documents
Correlation has been widely used to facilitate various information retrieval methods such as query expansion, relevance feedback, document clustering, and multi-modal fusion. Especially, correlation and independence are important issues when fusing different modalities that influence a multi-modal information retrieval process. The basic idea of correlation is that an observable can help predict or enhance another observable. In quantum mechanics, quantum correlation, called entanglement, is a sort of correlation between the observables measured in atomic-size particles when these particles are not necessarily collected in ensembles. In this paper, we examine a multimodal fusion scenario that might be similar to that encountered in physics by firstly measuring two observables (i.e., text-based relevance and image-based relevance) of a multi-modal document without counting on an ensemble of multi-modal documents already labeled in terms of these two variables. Then, we investigate the existence of non-classical correlations between pairs of multi-modal documents. Despite there are some basic differences between entanglement and classical correlation encountered in the macroscopic world, we investigate the existence of this kind of non-classical correlation through the Bell inequality violation. Here, we experimentally test several novel association methods in a small-scale experiment. However, in the current experiment we did not find any violation of the Bell inequality. Finally, we present a series of interesting discussions, which may provide theoretical and empirical insights and inspirations for future development of this direction.
KeywordsMulti-modal information retrieval Non-classical correlations Decision fused multi-modal documents CHSH inequality
This work is funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 721321.
- 1.Aerts, D., Sozzo, S.: Quantum structure in cognition: why and how concepts are entangled. In: Song, D., Melucci, M., Frommholz, I., Zhang, P., Wang, L., Arafat, S. (eds.) QI 2011. LNCS, vol. 7052, pp. 116–127. Springer, Heidelberg (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-24971-6_12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Hou, Y., Song, D.: Characterizing pure high-order entanglements in lexical semantic spaces via information geometry. In: Bruza, P., Sofge, D., Lawless, W., van Rijsbergen, K., Klusch, M. (eds.) QI 2009. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5494, pp. 237–250. Springer, Heidelberg (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-00834-4_20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Nielsen, M.A., Chuang, I.: Quantum computation and quantum information (2002)Google Scholar
- 18.Simonyan, K., Zisserman, A.: Very deep convolutional networks for large-scale image recognition. arXiv preprint arXiv:1409.1556 (2014)
- 19.Stenger, V.J.: Timeless Reality: Symmetry, Simplicity and Multiple Universes. (Chap. 12)Google Scholar