• Annikki Mäkelä
  • Harry T. Valentine


The term competition is used to describe individual tree or stand-level reactions to situations where the trees must share limited resources. Resource limitation at the stand level constrains total growth, productivity, and the maximum biomass that a site can support. In this chapter we focus on the reactions of individuals to resource limitation. We consider the distribution of resources among individuals in crowded stands, plastic reactions of trees to competition, and the combined effects of environment and plasticity on resource acquisition.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annikki Mäkelä
    • 1
  • Harry T. Valentine
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Forest SciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.USDA Forest ServiceNorthern Research StationDurhamUSA

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