• Annikki Mäkelä
  • Harry T. Valentine


This chapter introduces the purpose and intent of the book, then reviews key concepts used in dynamic ecological modelling, such as hierarchy, resolution, modelling approaches, and the concepts of state and rate variables. A simple example of growth modelling is given together with a brief introduction to solving differential equation models in R.

Supplementary material


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annikki Mäkelä
    • 1
  • Harry T. Valentine
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Forest SciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.USDA Forest ServiceNorthern Research StationDurhamUSA

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