Conflict of Interest

  • Tessa London
  • Robert-Marlo F. BautistaJr
  • Avinash S. Bhakta
  • Vanessa Bazan
  • Joseph B. ZwischenbergerEmail author


A conflict of interest (COI) involves subjecting professional judgment to secondary interests. Influence from industry, funding, hospital administration, and the patient’s family, all risk creating complex COI. Surgeons must stay current with new technology as evidence accumulates and their skill sets evolve, necessitating a close understanding and relationship with industry. This relationship may extend to industry funding of scientific studies that guide best practices. External and increasingly internal funding sources both direct and indirect can influence income, research, medical education, and patient management. Additionally, discordance between the surgeon’s determination of the best therapeutic intervention (brand/treatments/procedures) and the hospital administration’s perception of the most fiscally responsible intervention is growing. Finally, we examine the role of family member influence on treatment decisions and how that may create COI for the surgeon.


Conflict of interest Industry conflict of interest Medical administration Personal benefit Competing interests 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tessa London
    • 1
  • Robert-Marlo F. BautistaJr
    • 2
  • Avinash S. Bhakta
    • 1
  • Vanessa Bazan
    • 3
  • Joseph B. Zwischenberger
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Kentucky College of MedicineLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.General Surgery Residency ProgramUniversity of Kentucky Graduate Medical EducationLexingtonUSA
  3. 3.University of Kentucky College of MedicineLexingtonUSA

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