Advertisement

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Anxiety in Children

  • Laura Nabors
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Child and Family Studies book series (SSCFS)

Abstract

Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may need to occur prior to addressing symptoms of anxiety for children with co-occurring disorders, especially if ADHD symptoms are interfering with functioning at school and at home. Treating executive functions deficits, so that the child can complete course work, is an example of intervening to treat ADHD symptoms. Interventions that address ADHD symptoms so the child can focus or pay attention, and therefore learn anxiety management strategies, may improve behavioral functioning. Treating anxiety through education, graded exposure, and teaching anxiety management strategies (e.g., relaxation) may reduce worries and improve emotional functioning. Reducing occurrence of risky behaviors (related to ADHD) and improving emotional regulation also may be essential interventions. Involving parents in treatment to help the child pay attention and learn strategies was a hallmark of many interventions. It is not yet clear whether having ADHD and anxiety results in further deficits in functioning compared to having ADHD alone, and further research is needed in this area.

Keywords

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) MTA cooperative group Risky behavior Emotional reactivity Cool Kids Program Mindfulness 

References

  1. Anastopoulos, A. D., Smith, T. F., Garrett, M. E., Morrissey-Kane, E., Schatz, N. K., Sommer, J. L., … Ashley-Koch, A. (2011). Self-regulation of emotion, functional impairment, and comorbidity among children with AD/HD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 15(7), 583–592.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054710370567CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arbel, R., Perrone, L., & Margolin, G. (2018). Adolescents’ daily worries and risky behaviors: The buffering role of support seeking. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 47(6), 900–911.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2016.1169536CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barkley, R. A. (1997). Defiant children: A clinician’s manual for parent training (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  4. Blackledge, J. T., & Hayes, S. C. (2001). Emotion regulation in acceptance and commitment therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(2), 243–255.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-4679CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bodden, D. H. M., Bögels, S. M., Nauta, M. H., De Haan, E., Ringrose, J., Appelboom, C., … Appleboom-Gerts, K. C. (2008). Child versus family cognitive-behavioral therapy in clinically anxious youth: An efficacy and partial effectiveness study. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(12), 1384–1394.  https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e318189148eCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bögels, S. M., Lehtonen, A., & Restifo, K. (2010, May, Online). Mindful parenting in mental health care. Mindfulness, 1, 107–120.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-010-0014-5. downloaded August 3, 2019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cooper, M. L., Agocha, V. B., & Sheldon, M. S. (2000). A motivational perspective on risky behaviors: The role of personality and affect regulatory processes. Journal of Personality, 68, 1059–1088.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cuffe, S. P., Visser, S. N., Holbrook, J. R., Danielson, M. L., Geryk, L. L., Wolraich, M. L., & McKeown, R. E. (2015, November, Online). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and psychiatric comorbidity: Functional outcomes in a school-based sample of children. Journal of Attention Disorders, Epub version, 10p.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054715613437. downloaded August 3, 2019
  9. de Castro, B. O., Veerman, J. W., Koops, W., Bosch, J. D., & Monshouwer, H. J. (2002). Hostile attribution of intent and aggressive behavior: A meta-analysis. Child Development, 73(3), 916–932.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8634.00447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation. Conceptual foundations. In J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 3–24). New York: NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  11. Hinshaw, S. P., Arnold, L. E., & the MTA Cooperative Group. (2015). ADHD, multimodal treatment and longitudinal outcome: Evidence, paradox, and challenge. Interdisciplinary Reviews in Cognitive Science, 6(1), 39–52.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.1324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Humphreys, K. L., & Lee, S. S. (2011). Risk taking and sensitivity to punishment in children with ADHD, ODD, and ADHD + ODD, and controls. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 33(3), 299–307.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-011-9237-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jarrett, M. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2012). Treatment of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety in children: A multiple baseline analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(2), 239–244.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027123CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Jarrett, M. A., Wolff, J. C., Davis, T. E., III, Cowart, M. J., & Ollendick, T. H. (2012, August, Online). Characteristics of children with ADHD and comorbid anxiety. Journal of Attention Disorders, published online, 9p. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1087054712452914?journalCode=jada. downloaded August 3, 2019
  15. Manassis, K., Lee, T. C., Bennett, K., Zhao, X. Y., Mendlowitz, S., Duda, S., … Wood, J. J. (2014). Types of parental involvement in CBT with anxious youth: A preliminary meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(6), 1163–1172.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036969CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Maric, M., van Steensel, F. J. A., & Bögels, S. M. (2015, March, Online). Parental involvement in CBT for anxiety-disordered youth revisited: Family CBT outperforms child CBT in the long term for children with comorbid ADHD symptoms. Journal of Attention Disorders, published online, 9p.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054715573991. downloaded on August 3, 2019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Melegari, M. G., Nanni, V., Lucidi, F., Russo, P. M., Donfrancesco, R., & Cloninger, C. R. (2015). Temperament and character profiles of preschool children with ODD, ADHD, and anxiety disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 58, 94–101.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2015.01.001CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Merikangas, K. R., Jian-Ping, H., Brody, D., Fisher, P. W., Bourdon, K., & Koretz, D. S. (2010). Prevalence and treatment of mental disorders among US children in the 2001–2004 NHANES. Pediatrics, 125(1), 75–81.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-2598CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Michelini, G., Eley, T. C., Gregory, A. M., & McAdams, T. A. (2015). Aetiological overlap between anxiety and attention deficit hyperactivity symptom dimensions in adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(4), 423–431.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12318CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Rapee, R. M., Lyneham, H. J., Hudson, J. L., Kangas, M., Wuthrich, V. M., & Schniering, C. A. (2013). Effect of comorbidity on treatment of anxious children and adolescents: Results from a large combined sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 48–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j/jaac.2012.10.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rapee, R. M., Wignall, A., Hudson, J. L., & Schniering, C. A. (2000). Treating anxious children and adolescents: An evidence-based approach. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.Google Scholar
  22. Reid, A., Graziano, P., McNamara, J., Paneto, A., & Geffken, G. (2015). Functional impairment differences among youth with ADHD: The role of comorbid anxiety and mood disorders. Journal of Nature And Science, 1(1), e31. http://www.jnsci.org/index.php?journal=nsci&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=31. downloaded August 3, 2019Google Scholar
  23. Schneider, R. L., Arch, J. J., & Landy, L. N. (2018). The longitudinal effect of emotion regulation strategies on anxiety levels in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 47(6), 978–991.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2016.1157757CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Sciberras, E., Mulraney, M., Anderson, V., Rapee, R. M., Nicholson, J. M., Efron, D., … & Hiscock, H. (2015, May, Online). Managing anxiety in children with ADHD using cognitive-behavioral therapy: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Attention Disorders, published online, 7p. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1087054715584054?journalCode=jada. downloaded on August 3, 2019
  25. Tsang, T. W., Kohn, M. R., Efron, D., Clarke, S. D., Clark, C. R., Lamb, C., & Williams, L. M. (2015). Anxiety in young people with ADHD: Clinical and self-report outcomes. Journal of Attention Disorders, 19(1), 18–26.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054712446830CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Van der Oord, S., Bögels, S. M., & Peijenenburg, D. (2012). The effectiveness of mindfulness training for children with ADHD and mindful parenting for their parents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21(1), 139–147.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-011-9457-0CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Weisz, J. R., Chorpita, B. F., Palinkas, L. A., Schoenwalk, S. K., Miranda, J., Bearman, S. K., … Gibbons, R. D. (2012). Testing standard and modular designs for psychotherapy treating depression, anxiety and conduct problems in youth: A randomized effectiveness trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(3), 274–282.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.147CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Nabors
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Human ServicesUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations