How to Level the Playing Field for Ride-Hailing and Taxis

  • Kaan YıldızgözEmail author
  • Hüseyin Murat Çelik
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1091)


Introduction of ride-hailing services created many legal challenges in various countries because of their different features of operation and business model. Policy makers and regulators are pressured to define methods to handle these challenges. Today different countries has taken different approaches as policy and regulatory framework response to the entrance of ride-hailing companies but there is no common approach agreed. This research is meant to provide a system analysis and structured assessment regarding regulatory conflicts after introduction of ride-hailing services in different cities and also regulatory responses of these cities. This study presents an analysis and evaluation of developments to transportation policy and regulation since the proliferation of ride-hailing services with various examples and provide how to effectively approach “leveling the playing field” between traditional taxis and ride-hailing with set of principles to be considered while defining regulatory approach.


Ride-hailing Taxi Regulation Shared mobility Governance Technology 


  1. 1.
    Yıldızgöz, K.: Dijitalleşme Çağında Taksiler, Marmara Kultur Yayınları. Istanbul, Turkey (2018). ISBN 9786056807169Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Geradini, D.: Should Uber be Allowed to Compete in Europe? Legal Studies Research Paper Series, Gearge Mason University, USA (2015)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    McBride, S.: Ridesourcing and the taxi marketplace. Electronic thesis or dissertation, Boston College USA (2015)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buckley, C.: An Examination of Taxi Apps and Public Policy Regulation.
  5. 5.
    Sundararajan, A.: Peer-to-Peer Businesses and the Sharing (Collaborative) Economy: Overview, Economic Effects and Regulatory Issues.
  6. 6.
    Merkert, E.: Antitrust vs. Monopoly: an Uber Disruption. FAU Undergraduate Law Journal.
  7. 7.
    Wagner, D.: Sustaining Uber: opportunities for electric vehicle integration. Pomona Senior Theses, University of Claremont, USA (2017)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pew Research Center: Shared, Collaborative and On Demand: New Digital Economy.
  9. 9.
    Yıldızgöz, K., Çelik, H.M.: Critical moment for taxi sector: what should be done by traditional taxi sector after the TNC disruption? In: Nathanail, E., Karakikes, I. (eds.) Data Analytics: Paving the Way to Sustainable Urban Mobility: CSUM 2018. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 879. Springer, Cham (2019)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Daus, M.: The Expanding Transportation Network Company “Equity Gap”. University Transportation Research Center, New York, USA (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bowers, S.: Uber’s main UK business paid only £411,000 in tax last year.
  12. 12.
    Kunashegaran, S.: How Uber, Google, Facebook and Other Tech Giants Avoid Paying Billions in Tax?
  13. 13.
    Griswold, A.: A British court rules Uber drivers have workers’ rights in the “employment case of the decade”.
  14. 14.
    Swissinfo,: Swiss authorities say Uber drivers should be treated as ‘employees’.–employees-/43984356
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
    Hawkins, A.: The five issues holding Uber and Lyft back in big states.
  17. 17.
    Singh, J.: Combined Mobility and Public Transport, UITP Training Programme, Vienna, Austria (2017Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maryland Public Service Comission: Maryland PSC approves alternative backround checks for Uber and Lyft Drivers.
  19. 19.
    Licorish, D.: Ride-sharing in Canada: It’s Complicated.
  20. 20.
    Stolte, E.: Edmonton becomes first city in Canada to pass Uber friendly by-law.
  21. 21.
    Craggs, S.: Uber will be safer and more easily identified under new law: city.
  22. 22.
    Chapman, H.: London taxi and PHVs. In: 4th International UITP Taxi Seminar, London, UK (2017)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Haldevang, M., Mexico to regulate Uber with licence fees, ride levy.
  24. 24.
    The Guardian: Canberra takes the lead in regulating Uber as NRMA urges others to follow suit.
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
    ABC News, These are the states and territories where Uber is (and isn’t) legal.
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
    Land Transport Franhising and Regulatory Board: Rules and Regulations to Govern Transport Network Companies.
  29. 29.
    Teo, J.: Regulation of third party booking apps in Singapore. In: IATR Annual Congress, San Francisco, USA (2016)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hassan, A.: Malaysia taxi transformation plan. In: UITP National Public Transport Conference, Kayseri, Turkey (2017)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hanada, R., Urasaki, K.: Rules leave Uber with hard road in Japan.
  32. 32.
    Strange S.: Seoul bans Uber and plans to launch a competing app.
  33. 33.
    Mullen, J., Yang, Y.: Uber suspends its service in Taiwan as fines mount.
  34. 34.
    Khrennikov, I.: Uber Russian Drivers Quit After Putin’s Tax on U.S. Tech Giants.
  35. 35.
  36. 36.
  37. 37.
    Dillet, R.: Uber, LeCab and others now have to wait 15 minutes before picking up you.
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
    Khan, J.: 10.000 Euro fines threat to Uber Taxis in Brussels.
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
    Heisler, Y.: Uber was just banned from operating in Italy.
  42. 42.
    European Court of Justice: Asociacion Profesional Elite Taxi v Uber Systems Spain SL.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Association of Public Transport-UITPBrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Institute of Science and TechnologyIstanbul Sabahattin Zaim UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Istanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations