Additive Manufacturing: Design (Topology Optimization), Materials, and Processes

  • George LampeasEmail author


Additive Manufacturing is defined as the process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing methods. The adoption of AM techniques can offer the ability to design and produce complex and demanding components that have optimal material topology and therefore optimal behavior in terms of functionality, load transfer, strength, and mechanical behavior. In this chapter an introduction to structural optimization is provided and different types of structural optimization techniques are presented, focusing on topology optimization. The basic concepts and techniques used for the topological optimization of structural components are presented and applied in two characteristic aeronautical structural parts of different scale, namely a bracket connection and a commercial aircraft fuselage airframe section. Subsequently, various types of AM manufacturing processes are described, suitable for production of topology optimized aerospace parts; special emphasis is placed in powder bed fusion techniques, which are more commonly applied for the production of aeronautical parts and components. The chapter is completed with an overview of the main active research subjects in the scientific field of additive manufacturing, especially relative to the aerospace sector.


Additive manufacturing Topology optimization Solid isotropic material with penalization method Evolutionary structural optimization method Bidirectional evolutionary structural optimization method Additive manufacturing processes Aerospace AM parts 


  1. FDM Printed Fixed Wing UAV—AMRC. Accessed 17 July 2018
  2. Bendsøe MP (1995) Optimization of structural topology, shape and material. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bendsøe MP, Sigmund O (2003) Topology optimization: theory, method and application. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  4. Demonstration of Additive Manufacturing (FDM) for Production Composite Tooling at Dassault Falcon Jet (2018).
  5. Harber RB, Jog CS, Bendsøe MP (1996) A new approach to variable-topology shape design using a constraint on the perimeter. Struct Optim 11:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hassani B, Hinton E (1999) Homogenization and structural topology optimization. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Huang X, Xie YM (2010) Evolutionary topology optimization of continuum structures: methods and applications. Wiley, Chichester, West SussexCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Krog L, Tucker A, Rollema G (2002) Application of topology, sizing and shape optimization methods to optimal design of aircraft components. In: Proceedings of 3rd Altair UK Hyper-Works users conferenceGoogle Scholar
  9. Loughborough University, VAT Photopolymerisation. Accessed 16 June 2019
  10. Niemann S, Kolesnikov B, Lohse-Busch H, Hühne C, Querin OM, Toropov VV, Liu D (2013) The use of topology optimisation in the conceptual design of next generation lattice composite aircraft fuselage structures. Aeronaut J 117:1139–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Remouchamps A, Bruyneel M, Fleury C, Grihon S (2011) Application of a bi-level scheme including topology optimization to the design of an aircraft pylon. Struct Multidiscip Optim 44:739–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Sigmund O (1997) On the design of compliant mechanisms using topology optimization. Mech Struct Mach 25:495–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Svanberg K (1987) The method of moving asymptotes. A new method for structural optimization. Int J Numer Methods Eng 24:359–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Thompson SM, Bian L, Shamsaei N, Yadollahi A (2015) An overview of direct laser deposition for additive manufacturing; part I: transport phenomena, modeling and diagnostics. Addit Manuf 8:36–62Google Scholar
  15. Tomlin M, Meyer J (2011) Topology optimization of an additive layer manufactured (ALM) aerospace part. In: The 7th Altair CAE technology conferenceGoogle Scholar
  16. Xie YM, Steven GP (1997) Evolutionary structural optimization. Springer, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Yang XY, Xie YM, Liu GT, Clarkson PJ (2003) Perimeter control of the bidirectional evolutionary optimization method. Struct Multidiscip Optim 24:430–440Google Scholar
  18. Zhou J, Lu Z, Miao K, Ji Z, Dong Y, Li D (2015) Quick fabrication of aeronautical complicated structural parts based on stereolithography. Propuls Power Res 4:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zillober C (2002) SCPIP an efficient software tool for the solution of structural optimization problems. Struct Multidiscip Optim 24(5):362–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Technology and Strength of Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering and AeronauticsUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece

Personalised recommendations