Conceptualizing Factors that Influence South African Students’ Intention to Choose Mobile Devices as Tools for Learning

  • Baldreck ChipanguraEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11937)


South African students use mobile devices as information access and interaction tools in their daily lives but seldom use them for learning. The question is why online students minimally choose to use mobile devices for learning despite empirical case study evidence that supports m-learning. To get an answer to this question, this study investigated the factors that influence students’ intention to choose to use mobile devices for learning. The study adopted the Procedure for Conceptual Framework Analysis to carry a literature analysis of selected South African m-learning case studies, ICT policies, educational ICT policies, and grey ICT reports. The result of this study is a proposed conceptual framework that categorizes factors that influence students’ intention to choose to use mobile devices for learning into Country Mobile Phone Environment Factors, Educational Institution Factors, Educator Factors and Student Factors. The categories are valuable for they inform strategic planning and implementation of mobile learning services whilst ensuring the needed cooperation with students at educational institutions.


Mobile devices Mobile learning Educators Students 


  1. 1.
    Herselman, M., Botha, A.: Designing and implementing an Information Communication Technology for Rural Education Development (ICT4RED) initiative in a resource constraint environment: Nciba school district, Eastern Cape, South Africa. CSIR Meraka, Pretoria (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gregson, J., Jordaan, D.: Exploring the challenges and opportunities of m-learning within an international distance education program. AU Press, Athabasca Univeristy, Canada (2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bere, A.: Applying an extended task-technology fit for establishing determinants of mobile learning: an instant messaging initiative. J. Inf. Syst. Educ. 29(4), 239–252 (2018)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hodgkinson-Williams, C., Ng’ambi D.: Case Study 5: Mobile Learning: Opening Scholarship. Centre of Educational Technology, University of Cape Town, South Africa (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jantjies, M., Joy, M.: Lessons learnt from teachers’ perspectives on mobile learning in South Africa with cultural and linguistic constraints. J. Educ. Technol. Soc. 18(1), 308–320 (2016)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bere, A., Rambe, P.: An empirical analysis of the determinants of mobile instant messaging appropriation in university learning. J. Comput. High. Educ. 28(2), 172–198 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Traxler, J.: Distance learning—predictions and possibilities. Educ. Sci. 8(1), 35 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Traxler, J., Kukulska-Hulme, A.: Contextual challenges for the next generation. In: Traxler, K.-H. (ed.) Mobile Learning the Next Generation, pp 208–226. Routledge (2015)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jabareen, Y.R.: Building a conceptual framework: philosophy, definitions, and procedure. Int. J. Qual. Methods 8(4), 49–62 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Butgereit, L.: Math on MXit: using MXit as a medium for mathematics education. Paper presented at the Meraka INNOVATE Conference for Educators, Pretoria, South Africa (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ford, M., Botha, A.: MobilED–an accessible mobile learning platform for Africa. In: the IST- Africa 2007 Conference, Maputo, Mozambique (2007)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jantjies, M.E., Joy, M.: A framework to support mobile learning in multilingual environments. Paper presented at the 10th International Conference on Mobile Learning, Spain (2014).
  13. 13.
    Rambe, P., Bere, A.: Using mobile instant messaging to leverage learner participation and transform pedagogy at a South African University of Technology. Br. J. Educ. Technol. 44(4), 544–561 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Department of Communication: South Africa’s Broadband Policy (South Africa: Creating Opportunities, Ensuring Inclusion). Government Gazette 953(37119), Cape Town, South Africa (2013)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    National Planning Commission: National Development Plan 2030: Our future–make it work. Presidency of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa (2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    ICASA: Independent Communications Authority of South Africa Strategic Plan for the Fiscal Years 2015–2019 (2014). Accessed 30 July 2019
  17. 17.
    Department of Communication: Electronic Communications Amendment Act. 2014. Government Gazette 586(37536), Cape Town, South Africa (2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Department of Justice: Promotion of access to Information Act2 of 2000. Government Gazette 416(208520, Cape Town, South Africa (2000)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Department of Communication: Telecommunication act. Government Gazette 377(17581), Cape Town, South Africa (1996)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    DoE: White Paper on e-Education: Transforming Learning and Teaching through Information and Communication technologies. Government Gazette 470(26734), Cape Town, South Africa (2004)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    DHET: Green paper for post-school education and training. Department of higher Education and Technology Pretoria, South Africa (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    DHET: Policy for the provision of distance education in South African universities in the context of an integrated school system. Government Gazette 535(37811), Cape Town, South Africa (2014)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Welch, T., Reed Y.: Designing and delivering distance education. In: Welch, T., Reed, Y. (eds.) Designing and Delivering Distance Education: Quality Criteria and Case Studies from South Africa. NADEOSA, Pretoria, South Africa (2005)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Council on Higher Education: Distance higher education programs in a digital era: Good practice guide. CHE, Pretoria, South Africa (2014)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    ITU: Measuring Information Society Report Volume 1 2018. ITU, Geneva Switzerland (2018). Accessed 30 July 2019
  26. 26.
    ICASA.: The state of the ICT sector report in South Africa 2019 (2019). Accessed 30 July 2019
  27. 27.
    Statistics South Africa.: General Household Survey 2018 Statistical Release P0318. Department of Statistics, Pretoria, South Africa (2018)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vosloo, S.E.: Mobile learning and policies: key issues to consider. UNESCO, Paris (2012)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ng’ambi, D., Brown, C., Bozalek, V., Gachago, D., Wood, D.: Technology enhanced teaching and learning in South African higher education–a rearview of a 20 year journey. Br. J. Educ. Technol. 47(5), 843–858 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Botha, A., Herselman, M., Rametse, S., Maremi, K.: Barriers in rural technology integration: a case study from the trenches. In: IEEE 2017 IST-Africa Conference, Windhoek, Namibia (2017)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ford, M., Batchelor, J.: From zero to hero–is the mobile phone a viable learning tool for Africa? In: the 3rd International Conference on Social and Organizational Informatics and Cybernetics Conference, Orlando, USA (2007)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Isaacs, S., Vosloo, S., West, M.: Mobile learning for teachers in Africa and the Middle East: exploring the potential of mobile technologies to support teachers and improve practice. UNESCO, Paris (2012)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Herselman, M., Botha, A., Mayindi, D., Reid, E.: Influences of the ecological systems theory influencing technological use in rural schools in South Africa: a case study. In: 2018 International Conference on Advances in Big Data, Computing and Data Communication Systems (icABCD), Durban, South Africa (2018)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Eicker-Nel, S., Matthee, M.: The adoption of tablet based e-textbooks in a South African private school. In: Proceedings of the e-Skills for Knowledge Production and Innovation Conference 2014, Cape Town, South Africa, pp 109–123 (2014)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chipangura, B.: Lecturer and policy readiness: a critical relationship in the provision of mobile centric services in teaching. In: IEEE 2016 IST-Africa Conference, Durban, South Africa (2016)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mabila, J., Herselman, M.E.: Evaluation of the framework for sustainable mobile learning in resource-constrained environments in South Africa. In: the Proceedings of the 10th Conference of the International Development Informatics Association, Hennops river Valley, Pretoria, South Africa (2018)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ford, M., Leinonen, T.: MobilED–a mobile tools and services platform for formal and informal learning. In: Allay, M. (ed.) Mobile Learning Transforming the Delivery of Education and Training. AU Press, Athabasca Univeristy, Canada (2006)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ford, M.: Mobile instant messaging: the “killer application” for e(m)government in Africa? In: the IST-Africa 2008 Conference, Windhoek, Namibia (2008)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ford, M., Botha, A.: MobiLED: mobile-led and leading via mobile. In: The IST-Africa 2009 Conference, Kampala, Uganda (2009)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Butgereit, L, Botha, R.A.: C3TO: enabling mathematics teachers to create a presence on MXIT and other chat areas. In: IEEE 2010 IST-Africa Conference, Gaborone, Botswana (2010)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Traxler, J., Vosloo, S.: Introduction: the prospects for mobile learning. Prospects 44(1), 13–28 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chipangura, B., Van Biljon, J., Botha, A.: Evaluating mobile-centric readiness of higher education institutions: The case of institutional policies and information systems students. Afr. J. Inf. Commun. 2015(15), 4–13 (2015)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bere, A., Deng, H., Tay, R.: Assessing the impact of using instant messaging in eLearning on the performance of teaching and learning in higher education. In: ACIS2018: E-learning Performance, Sydney, Australia (2018)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Botha, A., Herselman, M., van Greunen, D.: Mobile user experience in a m-learning environment. In: ACM Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Research Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists, Bela Bela, South Africa (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of South AfricaJohannesburgSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations