Handling Modifiers in Question Answering over Knowledge Graphs

  • Lucia Siciliani
  • Dennis Diefenbach
  • Pierre Maret
  • Pierpaolo BasileEmail author
  • Pasquale Lops
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11946)


Question Answering (QA) over Knowledge Graphs (KGs) has gained its momentum thanks to the spread of the Semantic Web. However, despite the abundance of methods proposed in this field, there are still many aspects that need to be fully covered. One of them is the generation of SPARQL queries with modifiers, i.e. queries that are made up not only by triple patterns but also other terms belonging to the SPARQL syntax, such as FILTER, LIMIT, COUNT, ORDER BY. This task results difficult to accomplish in a generic way since the matching with natural language is not straightforward. Few works try to address this complex issue. In this paper, we propose a new approach to handle and to generate queries containing modifiers. Our method is able to generate queries with multiple modifiers, it is easily extendable to cover new modifiers and new languages, and it is independent of the KG structure. Our approach represents an extension of an existing work called QAnswer.


Question answering SPARQL Knowledge graphs Modifiers Multilingual Qanswer 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucia Siciliani
    • 1
  • Dennis Diefenbach
    • 2
  • Pierre Maret
    • 2
  • Pierpaolo Basile
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pasquale Lops
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of Bari MoroBariItaly
  2. 2.Laboratoire Hubert CurienSaint EtienneFrance

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