Silver Nanoparticles in Wound Infections: Present Status and Future Prospects
The wounds are infected by one or more bacteria or other microbes. The occurrence of the bacterial infections in wounds is mainly responsible in delayed healing and enhancement of wound. These bacteria include Gram-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and fungi like Candida and Aspergillus. The use of silver has been known since nineteenth century and after the discovery of penicillin, its use was reduced. However, the occurrence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has led to the search of new antibiotics and alternatives to solve the problem of multidrug-resistance. In this context, scientists have shown much interest on the use of silver and silver nanoparticles as they are very effective against bacterial infections.
This chapter is aimed to discuss the role of silver and silver nanoparticles in wound infections. In addition, the resistance of microbes to silver and silver nanoparticles and the toxicity issues have also been addressed.
KeywordsWounds Silver Silver nanoparticles Bacteria Fungi Resistance Toxicity
- Alavi M, Rai M (2019) Recent advances in antibacterial applications of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and metal nanocomposites (MNCs) against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther 17(6):419–428. https://doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2019.1614914CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Ayton M (1985) Wound care: wounds that won’t heal. Nurs Times 81(46):16–19Google Scholar
- Bowler PG (1998) The anaerobic and aerobic microbiology of wounds: A review. Wounds 10(6):170–178Google Scholar
- Calvin M (1998) Cutaneous wound repair. Wounds 10(1):12–32Google Scholar
- Collier M (2004) Recognition and management of wound infection. J World Wide WoundsGoogle Scholar
- Fox CL, Stanford JW (1971) Anti-bacterial action of silver sulphadiazine and DNA binding. In: Matter P, Barcaly TL, Konikova Z (eds) Research in burns. Huber, Bern, pp 133–138Google Scholar
- Kedi PBE, Meva FE, Kotsedi L, Nguemfo EL, Zangueu CB, Ntoumba AA, Mohamed HEA, Dongmo AB, Maaza M (2018) Eco-friendly synthesis, characterization, in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of silvernanoparticle-mediated Selaginella myosurus aqueous extract. Int J Nanomedicine 12(13):8537–8548. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S174530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kirsner R, Orsted H, Wright B (2001) Matrix metalloproteinases in normal and impaired wound healing: a potential role of nanocrystaline silver. Wounds 13:5–10Google Scholar
- Klasen HJ (2000) A historical review of the use of silver in the treatment of burns. Part I early uses. Burns 30:1–9Google Scholar
- Lansdown ABG (2010) Silver in health and disease. Its antimicrobial efficacy and safety in use. Royal Society of Chemistry, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Stanford W, Rappole BW, Fox Jr CL (1969) Clinical experience with silver sulfadiazine, a new topical agent for control of pseudomonas infection in burn patients. J Trauma 9(5):377–388Google Scholar
- Wu S, Huang J, Zhang F, Qingping W, Zhang J, Pang R, Zeng H, Yang X, Chen M, Wang J, Dai J, Xue L, Lei T, Wei X (2019) Prevalence and characterization of food-related methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in China. Front Microbiol 10:304. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00304CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar