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Antifungal Nanotherapy: A Novel Approach to Combat Superficial Fungal Infections

  • Farnoush Asghari-Paskiabi
  • Zahra Jahanshiri
  • Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi
  • Mehdi Razzaghi-AbyanehEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Superficial fungal infections (SFIs) affect up to 25% of population all over the world. Although dermatophytosis is the main SFIs with worldwide distribution, tinea versicolor caused by Malassezia species and Candida-related infections are also common. SFIs have diverse etiologic agents, which differ in pathogenesis and geographic distribution with increasing rate of resistant species to current antifungal therapy. Nowadays, the conventional antifungal therapy of SFIs using current antifungals of azoles, allylamines, and griseofulvin have some drawbacks like liver toxicity, skin problem, severe headaches and sometimes recurrences and drug–drug interactions especially in patients who are under drug treatment for other diseases. The problem is more complicated in immunocompromised patients who undergone systemic immunosuppressive therapies. On the other hand, low penetration of antifungal drugs in hard tissues of nail in onychomycoses caused by the dermatophytes and Candida species in local therapies and drug resistance in emerging causative species are considered as other important limitations of current antifungal therapy against SFIs. Novel formulations of antifungals or new devices that increase the chance of the delivery of the drug into the site of the infection seem necessary in order to enhance the drug efficiency. Recently, nanotechnology has contributed into this area and proposes great opportunities for more effective treatments of SFIs. In this chapter, we highlight current status of antifungal nanotherapy using advanced nanoformulations to combat SFIs and discuss in details their application in future medicine.

Keywords

Nanotechnology Fungal infections Antifungal activity Nanocarriers Nanoparticles Dermatophytosis Candidiasis 

Nomenclature

CLSI

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute

CLSM

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

FBS

Fetal Bovine Serum

IC80

80% Inhibitory Concentration

MGYP

Malt extract, Glucose, Yeast extract and Peptone

NPs

Nanoparticles

PAN

Polyacrylonitrile

PCL

Polycaprolactone

PEG

Poly Ethylene Glycol

PEO

Poly(Ethylene Oxide)

PG

Propylene Glycol

ROS

Reactive Oxygen Species

SEM

Scanning Electron Microscope

XRD

X-ray diffraction

YPD

Yeast extract/Peptone/Dextrose

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farnoush Asghari-Paskiabi
    • 1
  • Zahra Jahanshiri
    • 1
  • Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi
    • 2
  • Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of MycologyPasteur Institute of IranTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Mycology, Faculty of Medical SciencesTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran

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