Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in In Vitro and In Vivo Models
Genotoxicity represents impairment to a cell’s DNA or RNA by genotoxic vehicle. Materials with at least one dimension of 100 nm or less are called nanomaterials. They vary greatly in size, composition, and structure. A phenomenal rapid growth in the use of metal nanomaterials (NPs) in various consumer products and biomedical applications resulted in increased exposure to humans and the environment. Many of the metal NPs used widely (Ag, Au, Ni, Cu, Co, Ti, Zn, and their corresponding oxides) have shown cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in various animal (mammalian/cell) models. Due to their antimicrobial activity silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are one of the most commonly used metal nanoparticles in consumer, medical, and industrial products. Interactions of metal nanomaterials with cells have shown to cause alterations in the expression of several cellular macromolecules. Overall the major adverse effects include reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated biomolecular damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins. Although it is likely that the impairment in genotoxicity and oxidative stress biomarkers is associated with Ag-NPs toxicity, it may be from the smaller particles’ proclivity to release silver ions from the surface compared to larger particles. This chapter emphasizes on genotoxicity of Ag-NPs in in vitro and in vivo models.
KeywordsSilver nanoparticles Genotoxicity DNA Chromosome aberrations In vitro In vivo Reactive oxygen species
Authors are thankful to National Institutes of Health (Grant # G12MD007581) through the RCMI Center for Environmental Health at Jackson State University for support.
Conflict of Interest Statement: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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