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Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis: Control and Therapy Through Nanotechnology

  • Vandita KakkarEmail author
  • Parina Kumari
  • Priyanka Narula
  • Mohd Yaseen
Chapter

Abstract

Osteomyelitis (OM) also known as bone infection is a subtle but a severe condition. OM in diabetic foot is a complication of a foregoing foot infection. The conventional remedies for osteomyelitis include prolonged and aggressive use of antibiotics and surgical intervention in case of severe infections. The treatment of bone infections through antibiotics often fails due to a widespread range of drug-resistant bacteria, poor accessibility of many antimicrobials to the deeper parts of the bones, facile formation of biofilm on the bone surface, and elevated hazards associated with drug toxicity. Nanotechnology-based interventions provide the possible solutions owing to their high targeting potential and efficient delivery, thus leading to the development of novel anti-infective formulations. The nanodelivery systems can be devised with precise functional moieties capable of selective transport of drugs to the specific site in a controlled manner, thus overcoming the most significant milestone in formulating anti-infectives. This chapter aims to explore the application of nanotechnology for the treatment of OM. Further, the pathogenic events along with the available therapeutic remedies, their disadvantages, and the role of nanosizing in OM have been discussed at length.

Keywords

Osteomyelitis Diabetes Nanotechnology Infections Anti-infectives 

Abbreviations

AG

Antibiotic group

AgNPs

Silver nanoparticles

CAPs

Calcium phosphates

CI

Confidence interval

CNS

Coagulase-negative staphylococci

CT

Computed tomography

DDS

Drug delivery system

DFO

Diabetic foot osteomyelitis

DFUs

Diabetic foot ulcers

DO

Diabetic osteomyelitis

ESR

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

FDG-PET

Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

HA

Hydroxyapatite

LR

Likelihood ratio

MBIC

Minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration

MDR

Multidrug resistance

MIC

Minimal inhibitory concentrations

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

OM

Osteomyelitis

PEG

Poly (ethylene glycol)

PLGA

Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)

PTB

Probe-to-bone test

SG

Surgical group

TCP

Tricalcium phosphate

TMP-SMX

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole

WBC

White blood cell

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vandita Kakkar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Parina Kumari
    • 1
  • Priyanka Narula
    • 1
  • Mohd Yaseen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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