Workers’ Control and Revolution: History and Theory
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The major revolutions of the twentieth century all included initiatives on the part of workers to take direct control of the production process. How does this worker-control dimension relate in practice to the transfer of state power? Detailed analyses are presented of (1) Russia 1917–18, (2) Italy 1919–20, (3) Spain during the Civil War period (1936–39), and (4) Chile during the presidency of Salvador Allende (1970–73). Discussion then addresses various possible patterns in the relationship between revolutionary political parties and enterprise-level working-class initiatives, looking also at the cases of Cuba and Venezuela. Neither worker-control nor the conquest of state power suffices on its own to bring the desired and needed transformation. The two dimensions must be integrally combined from the start.