Towards Self-automatable and Unambiguous Smart Contracts: Machine Natural Language

  • Peng QinEmail author
  • Jingzhi Guo
  • Bingqing Shen
  • Quanyi Hu
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies book series (LNDECT, volume 41)


A smart contract originally drafted by natural language is an essential task of many applications in blockchain technology. Firstly, natural language cannot be directly executed by computers, self-executing requires terms of the smart contract be computer-readable and executable. Secondly, in crossing environments or parties, contract translation needs the overall meaning of a sentence to have a meticulous precision, besides, low tolerance of mistakes for reducing a tedious process. Lastly, many kinds of templates of smart contracts need a common sense of agreement where each party agrees on the context of the contract. This paper explores the problems of the smart contract in natural language and self-executing to redefine the smart contract through an approach, which supports a human-readable, computer-understandable and self-executable contract representations with enabling semantic structural based on Machine Natural Language (MNL). Meanwhile, a common dictionary (CoDic) transfers natural languages into universal machine codes or languages without the ambiguity across parties.


Machine natural language Smart contracts Semantic document Universal grammar 



This research is partially supported by the University of Macau Research Grant No. MYRG2017-00091-FST.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peng Qin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jingzhi Guo
    • 1
  • Bingqing Shen
    • 1
  • Quanyi Hu
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversity of MacauMacauChina

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