Conclusion: The Long Road to Parity in Politics

  • Petra AhrensEmail author
  • Katja Chmilewski
  • Sabine Lang
  • Birgit Sauer
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Political Science book series (BRIEFSPOLITICAL)


The concluding chapter summarizes the main findings by way of two levels of comparison: (1) between countries on the national level, and (2) between and within countries on subnational levels. We put these comparisons in the context of current debates on electoral system changes as well as more ‘radical’ propositions in both countries to switch from voluntary party quotas to legislative or constitutional quotas. As the chapter revisits discussions of how to increase the compatibility of quotas and electoral choice, it illustrates how initiatives around ‘parity laws’ gained momentum. We conclude by emphasizing that incremental changes to voluntary party quotas from within parties are unlikely to be sufficient to reach gender parity in representation.


Comparative politics Post-quota gender gap Gender parity Legislated quotas Voluntary party quotas Party statutes Germany Austria 

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petra Ahrens
    • 1
    Email author
  • Katja Chmilewski
    • 2
  • Sabine Lang
    • 3
  • Birgit Sauer
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Social SciencesTampere UniversityTampereFinland
  2. 2.University of ViennaViennaAustria
  3. 3.The Henry M. Jackson School of International StudiesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  4. 4.University of ViennaViennaAustria

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