Damage Identification Supported by Nondestructive Testing Techniques

  • Zbigniew L. KowalewskiEmail author
  • Aneta Ustrzycka
  • Tadeusz Szymczak
  • Katarzyna Makowska
  • Dominik Kukla
Part of the Advanced Structured Materials book series (STRUCTMAT, volume 121)


Development of damage due to exploitation loadings was investigated using destructive and non-destructive methods in materials commonly applied in power engineering or automotive industry. The fatigue or creep tests for a range of different materials were interrupted for selected number of cycles or deformation level in order to assess a damage degree. As destructive methods the standard tensile tests were carried out after prestraining. Subsequently, an evolution of the selected tensile parameters was taken into account for damage identification. The ultrasonic, magnetic and novel optical techniques were used as the non-destructive methods for damage evaluation. The experimental programme also included microscopic observations. The results show that ultrasonic and magnetic parameters can be correlated with those coming from destructive tests. It is shown that good correlation of mechanical and selected non-destructive parameters identifying damage can be achieved for the materials tested. The results of damage monitoring during fatigue tests supported by contemporary optical techniques (Digital Image Correlation and Electronic Spackle Pattern Interferometry) proved their great suitability for effective identification of places of damage initiation.

The work additionally presents simulation of fatigue crack initiation for cyclic loading within the nominal elastic regime. It is assumed that damage growth occurs due to action of mean stress and its fluctuations induced by crystalline grain inhomogeneity and free boundary effect. The fluctuation fields in polycrystalline metal subjected to the mechanical loading inducing uniform mean stress and strain states development due to the material inhomogeneity related to grain anisotropy and inhomogeneity. The yielding process develops at the low mean stress level in some grains due to the local strain accumulation at their boundaries. These stress fluctuations, developing at a fraction of the macroscopic elastic limit, are the source of initial structural defects and microscopic plastic mechanisms controlling the evolution of defect assemble toward the state of advanced yielding. A mechanism responsible for damage accumulation during cyclic loading below the yield point remains elusive and requires classification. The analytical description is aimed at development of the consistent description of the microplastic state of material. The macrocrack initiation corresponds to a critical value of accumulated damage.


Creep Damage Fatigue Optical methods (DIC ESPI) Nondestructive investigations Magnetic and ultrasonic techniques Microplasticity Crack Modelling 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zbigniew L. Kowalewski
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aneta Ustrzycka
    • 1
  • Tadeusz Szymczak
    • 2
  • Katarzyna Makowska
    • 2
  • Dominik Kukla
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Fundamental Technological ResearchWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Motor Transport InstituteWarsawPoland

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