Mesoscopic Heterogeneity

  • Vahid TavakoliEmail author
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Petroleum Geoscience & Engineering book series (BRIEFSPGE)


Microscopic homogeneous unites which are defined based on the fine-scale data are combined to form larger-scale units. Facies are grouped together to create a facies group and facies belts. These groups are interpolated between the wells using the concept of facies models. These models are constructed by comparing various sedimentary environments from different parts of the world. They act as a template for comparison, future observations, distribution of geological properties in space and time and also for understanding the primary physical, chemical and biological conditions of the depositional settings. While facies, facies groups and facies belts indicate the geological heterogeneity of the reservoir, hydraulic flow units divide the intervals into homogeneous groups from petrophysical point of view. These units are defined using various methods which are still evolving. Petrophysical characteristics are integrated with facies models and properties are upscaled into a coarser grid suitable for numerical reservoir modeling. The cyclicities of the facies and properties indicate the periodicity of the primary depositional conditions which, in turn, are used for heterogeneity analysis of the strata. These cyclicities are defined using sequences in most cases. Both geological (facies and diagenesis) and petrophysical properties are correlated in the framework of sequence stratigraphic units in the reservoir. Rocks between the boundaries of the sequences are genetically related and so have similar primary geological and petrophysical characteristics. With respect to these similarities, their diagenesis are also the same in most cases. So, defining facies, facies groups, facies models, hydraulic flow units and recognizable genetically related units at various scales helps to overcome the challenges of heterogeneity in carbonate reservoirs.


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© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geology, College of ScienceUniversity of TehranTehranIran

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