Advertisement

Mesoscopic Heterogeneity

  • Vahid TavakoliEmail author
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Petroleum Geoscience & Engineering book series (BRIEFSPGE)

Abstract

Microscopic homogeneous unites which are defined based on the fine-scale data are combined to form larger-scale units. Facies are grouped together to create a facies group and facies belts. These groups are interpolated between the wells using the concept of facies models. These models are constructed by comparing various sedimentary environments from different parts of the world. They act as a template for comparison, future observations, distribution of geological properties in space and time and also for understanding the primary physical, chemical and biological conditions of the depositional settings. While facies, facies groups and facies belts indicate the geological heterogeneity of the reservoir, hydraulic flow units divide the intervals into homogeneous groups from petrophysical point of view. These units are defined using various methods which are still evolving. Petrophysical characteristics are integrated with facies models and properties are upscaled into a coarser grid suitable for numerical reservoir modeling. The cyclicities of the facies and properties indicate the periodicity of the primary depositional conditions which, in turn, are used for heterogeneity analysis of the strata. These cyclicities are defined using sequences in most cases. Both geological (facies and diagenesis) and petrophysical properties are correlated in the framework of sequence stratigraphic units in the reservoir. Rocks between the boundaries of the sequences are genetically related and so have similar primary geological and petrophysical characteristics. With respect to these similarities, their diagenesis are also the same in most cases. So, defining facies, facies groups, facies models, hydraulic flow units and recognizable genetically related units at various scales helps to overcome the challenges of heterogeneity in carbonate reservoirs.

References

  1. Al-Dhafeeri AM, Nasr-El-Din HA (2007) Characteristics of high-permeability zones using core analysis, and production logging data. J Petrol Sci Eng 55(1–2):18–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amaefule JO, Altunbay MH, Tiab D, Kersey DG, Keelan DK (1993) Enhanced reservoir description using core and log data to identify hydraulic (flow) units and predict permeability in uncored intervals/wells. In: Paper presented at SPE annual technical conference and exhibition, Houston, Texas, 3–6 Oct 1993Google Scholar
  3. Arifianto I, Surjono SS, Erlangga G, Abrar B, Yogapurana E (2018) Application of flow zone indicator and Leverett J-function to characterise carbonate reservoir and calculate precise water saturation in the Kujung formation, North East Java Basin. J Geophys Eng 15(4):1753–1766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bear J (1972) Dynamics of fluids in porous media. Elsevier, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. Bover-Arnal T, Moreno-Bedmar JA, Frijia G, Pascual-Cebrian E, Salas R (2016) Chronostratigraphy of the barremian-early albian of the maestrat basin (E Iberian Peninsula): Integrating strontium-isotope stratigraphy and ammonoid biostratigraphy. Newsl Stratigr 49(1):41–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dolenec T, Lojen S, Ramovs A (2001) The Permian-Triassic boundary in Western Slovenia (Idrijca Valley section): magnetostratigraphy, stable isotopes, and elemental variations. Chem Geol 175:175–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ebanks WJ (1987) The flow unit concept—an integrated approach to reservoir description for engineering projects. AAPG Meeting Abstracts 1:521–522Google Scholar
  8. Ellwood BB, Tomkin JH, Febo LA, Stuart CN (2008) Time series analysis of magnetic susceptibility variations in deep marine sedimentary rocks: a test using the upper Danian-Lower Selandian proposed GSSP, Spain. Palaeogeogr Palaeocl Palaeoeco 261(3–4):270–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eltom H, Makkawi M, Abdullatif O, Alramadan K (2013) High-resolution facies and porosity models of the upper Jurassic Arab-D carbonate reservoir using an outcrop analogue, central Saudi Arabia. Arab J Geosci 6(11):4323–4335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Farshi M, Moussavi-Harami R, Mahboubi A, Khanehbad M, Golafshani T (2019) Reservoir rock typing using integrating geological and petrophysical properties for the Asmari Formation in the Gachsaran oil field, Zagros basin. J Petrol Sci Eng 176:161–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Flugel E (2010) Microfacies of carbonate rocks, analysis, interpretation and application. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  12. Ginsburg RN, James NP (1974) Holocene carbonate sediments of continental shelfs. The geology of continetal margins. Springer, Berlin, pp 137–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gunter GW, Finneran JM, Hartman DJ, Miller JD (1997) Early determination of reservoir flow units using an integrated petrophysical method, SPE 38679. In: SSPE annual technical conference and exhibition. San Antonio, TX; October 5–8, 1997Google Scholar
  14. Hear CL, Ebanks WJ, Tye RS and Ranganatha V (1984) Geological Factors Influencing Reservoir Performance of the Hartzog Draw Field, Wyoming. J Petrol Tech, 1335–1344Google Scholar
  15. Herbert TD, Fischer AG (1986) Milankovitch climatic origin of mid-Cretaceous black shale rhythms in central Italy. Nature 321:739–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heydari E, Hassanzadeh J (2003) Deevjahi model of the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction: a case for gas hydrates as the main cause of biological crisis on Earth. Sediment Geol 163:147–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Izadi M, Ghalambor A (2013) New approach in permeability and hydraulic-flow unit determination. SPE Reserv Eval Eng 16(3):257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jennings JW, Ruppel SC, Ward WB (2000) Geostatistical analysis of permeability data and modeling of fluid-flow effects in carbonate outcrops. SPEREE 3:292–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jensen JL, Lake LW, Corbett PW, Goggin DJ (2000) Statistics for petroleum engineers and geoscientists. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 338Google Scholar
  20. Korte C, Kozur HW, Joachimski MM, Strauss H, Veizer J, Schwark L (2004a) Carbon, sulfur, oxygen and strontium isotope records, organic geochemistry and biostratigraphy across the Permian/Triassic boundary in Abadeh, Iran. Int J Earth Sci 93:565–581Google Scholar
  21. Korte C, Kozur HW, Mohtat-Aghai P (2004b) Dzhulfian to lowermost Triassic δ13C record at the Permian/Triassic boundary section at Shahreza, Central Iran. Hallesches Jahrb der Geowissenschaften Beiheft 18:73–78Google Scholar
  22. Lehrmann DJ, Payne JL, Felix SV, Dillett PM, Wang H, Yu Y, Wei J (2003) Permian-Triassic boundary sections from shallow-marine carbonate platforms of the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China: implications for oceanic conditions associated with the end-Permian extinction and its aftermath. Palaios 18:138–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lerat O, Van Buchem FSP, Eschard R, Grammer GM, Homewood PW (2000) Facies distribution and control by accommodation within high-frequency cycles of the Upper Ismay interval (Pennsylvanian, Paradox Basin, Utah). In: Homewood PW, Eberli GP (eds) Genetic stratigraphy at the exploration and production scales. Elf EP, Pau, France, pp 71–91Google Scholar
  24. Liu Z (2012) Orbital cycles analysis and its genesis significance for the sequence hierarchy: a case study of Carboniferous Karashayi Formation, Central Tarim basin. J Earth Sci 23(4):516–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu Y, Liu Y, Zhang Q, Li C, Feng Y, Wang Y, Xue Y, Ma H (2019) Petrophysical static rock typing for carbonate reservoirs based on mercury injection capillary pressure curves using principal component analysis. J Petrol Sci Eng 181:106175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mirzaei-Paiaman A, Saboorian-Jooybari H, Pourafshary P (2015) Improved method to identify hydraulic flow units for reservoir characterization. Energy Technol 3:726–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mirzaei-Paiaman A, Ostadhassan M, Rezaee R, Saboorian-Jooybari H, Chen Z (2018) A new approach in petrophysical rock typing. J Petr Sci Eng 166:445–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mirzaei-Paiaman A, Sabbagh F, Ostadhassan M, Shafiei A, Rezaee MR, Saboorian-Jooybari H, Che Z (2019) A further verification of FZI and PSRTI: newly developed petrophysical rock typing indices. J Petr Sci Eng 175:693–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nabawy BS, Rashed MA, Mansour AS, Afify WSM (2018) Petrophysical and microfacies analysis as a tool for reservoir rock typing and modeling: Rudeis Formation, off-shore October Oil Field, Sinai. Mar Petrol Geol 97:260–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nazari MH, Tavakoli V, Rahimpour-Bonab H, Sharifi-Yazdi M (2019) Investigation of factors influencing geological heterogeneity in tight gas carbonates, Permian reservoir of the Persian Gulf. J Petrol Sci Eng 183, art. no 106341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Prokoph A, Agterberg FP (2000) Wavelet analysis of well-logging data from oil source rock, Egret Member, Offshore Eastern Canada. AAPG Bull 84(10):1617–1632Google Scholar
  32. Prokoph A, Thurow J (2000) Diachronous pattern of Milankovitch cyclicity in late Albian pelagic marlstones of the North German Basin. Sed Geol 134(3–4):287–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Prokoph A, Shields GA, Veizer J (2008) Compilation and time-series analysis of a marine carbonate δ18O, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr and δ34S database through earth history. Earth-Sci Rev 87(3–4):113–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rahimpour-Bonab H, Mehrabi H, Navidtalab A, Izadi-Mazidi E (2012) Flow unit distribution and reservoir modelling in cretaceous carbonates of the Sarvak Formation, Abteymour Oilfield, Dezful Embayment, SW Iran. J Petr Geol 35(3):213–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ramkumar M (2015) Chemostratigraphy: concepts, techniques and applications. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  36. Read JF (1982) Carbonate platforms of passive (extensional) continental margins: types, characteristics and evolution. Tectonophysics 81:195–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Riazi Z (2018) Application of integrated rock typing and flow units identification methods for an Iranian carbonate reservoir. J Petr Sci Eng 160:483–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schwarzacher W (1993) Cyclostratigraphy and Milankovitch theory. Devel Sedimentol 52:225Google Scholar
  39. Seilacher A (1991) Events and their signatures: an overview. In: Einsele G, Ricken W, Seilacher A (eds) Cycles and events in stratigraphy. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, p 955Google Scholar
  40. Shaw AB (1964) Time in stratigraphy, 365. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Soleymanzadeh A, Parvin S, Kord S (2019) Effect of overburden pressure on determination of reservoir rock types using RQI/FZI, FZI and Winland methods in carbonate rocks. Petr Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12182-019-0332-8
  42. Tavakoli V (2015) Chemostratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic Strata of the Offshore Persian Gulf, Iran. In: Ramkumar M (ed) Chemostratigraphy: concepts, techniques, and applications. Elsevier, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tavakoli V (2018) Geological core analysis: application to reservoir characterization. Springer, ChamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tavakoli V, Rahimpour-Bonab H, Esrafili-Dizaji B (2011) Diagenetic controlled reservoir quality of South Pars gas field, an integrated approach. C R Geosci 343:55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tavakoli V, Naderi-Khujin M, Seyedmehdi Z (2018) The end-Permian regression in the western Tethys: sedimentological and geochemical evidence from offshore the Persian Gulf, Iran. Geo-Mar Lett 38(2):179–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tiab D, Donaldson EC (2015) Petrophysics, theory and practice of measuring reservoir rock and fluid transport properties. Gulf Professional Publishing, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  47. Walker RG (1984) Facies models. Geological Association of CanadaGoogle Scholar
  48. Winchester S (2001) The map that changed the World. Harper Collins, New York, p 329Google Scholar
  49. Zhang Y, Li M, Ogg JG, Montgomery P, Huang C, Chen ZQ, Shi Z, Enos P, Lehrmann DJ (2015) Cycle-calibrated magnetostratigraphy of middle Carnian from South China: implications for Late Triassic time scale and termination of the Yangtze Platform. Palaeogeo Palaeocl Palaeoeco 436:135–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geology, College of ScienceUniversity of TehranTehranIran

Personalised recommendations