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Microscopic Heterogeneity

  • Vahid TavakoliEmail author
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Petroleum Geoscience & Engineering book series (BRIEFSPGE)

Abstract

Heterogeneity is variation in space and time which strongly depends on the scale of the study. This chapter focuses on microscale heterogeneities in a carbonate reservoir. At first, available data and methods are discussed to understand the microscopic heterogeneity in carbonates. Then, various methods are introduced to overcome this challenge. All reservoir properties depend on geological attributes, and so facies analysis and diagenetic impacts on the carbonate reservoirs are discussed. Facies grouping and diagenetic facies are introduced to classify different geological properties into similar categorizes. CT scan images are used for classifying the samples. Intelligent systems are widely used for this purpose. Porosity–permeability relationships are one of the most important criteria which are used for understanding the homogeneity of a unit. This is different for limy and dolomitic reservoirs. Interparticle, moldic and vuggy porosities with completely different petrophysical behaviors are dominant in limy carbonate reservoirs. Intercrystalline porosities between dolomite crystals generally increase the homogeneity of a sample, but the result also depends on the type and amount of dolomitization. In contrast to limy reservoirs, dolostones have small but uniform pore throat size distribution. Pore system classifications, rock typing methods and electrofacies are used for managing the heterogeneity in microscale. Pore types significantly control the petrophysical behavior of the carbonate reservoirs. They have been divided into various groups from different points of view. Rock typing procedure starts with the study of geological properties and continues with the incorporation of the petrophysical characteristics of the samples. Wire-line log data are grouped based on their similar readings and then are correlated with the previously determined rock types. The final unit is used for predicting reservoir properties in 3D space between the wells.

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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geology, College of ScienceUniversity of TehranTehranIran

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