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Genetics and Genomic Approaches for Disease Resistance in Brassicas

  • Priyamedha
  • Bhagirath Ram
  • Arun Kumar
  • H. K. Sharma
  • V. V. Singh
Chapter
  • 35 Downloads

Abstract

Genetics of plant disease, as explained by Flor, is based on the hypothesis that resistance genes confer resistance against pathogens that express matching avirulence genes. Avirulence genes of the pathogen encode a protein product that is conditionally recognized directly or indirectly only by those plants that contain the complementary resistance gene. At the gene level, plant resistance to pathogens can be divided into qualitative and quantitative disease resistance, conditioned by major gene(s) and multiple genes with minor effects, respectively. The genomic approaches to resistance gene initially started with genomic sequencing of Arabidopsis and rice. Genes containing a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) constitute around 80% of the plant resistance gene families. Monocot plants possess non-TIR type while both TIR and non-TIR types of NBS genes are the characteristics of resistance gene in dicots. A set of NBS-encoding genes at the genome level has been identified in more than 30 angiosperms. The number of identified NBS-encoding genes ranges from 200 in Arabidopsis thaliana to 581 in Oryza sativa. In Brassica, the whole-genome gene expression and methylation studies have been proved to be very useful in the direction of uncovering the structure, function, and evolutionary origin of resistance genes. A number of NBS-encoding genes have been identified and sequenced in Brassica species for various important diseases, which will provide a base for candidate gene approach for cloning the quantitative trait loci for disease resistance. A genome-wide comparison of putatively functional NBS-encoding genes in B. napus, B. rapa, and B. oleracea identified 464, 202, and 146 putatively functional NBS-encoding genes, respectively, with genes unevenly distributed in several clusters. As our knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of the plant immunity signaling pathway and the role of resistance genes will amplify, we will gain more effective and durable strategies to overcome pathogen attack.

Keywords

NBS-encoding genes Genome sequencing QTL mapping Resistance gene in Brassicas 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Priyamedha
    • 1
  • Bhagirath Ram
    • 1
  • Arun Kumar
    • 1
  • H. K. Sharma
    • 1
  • V. V. Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant BreedingICAR-Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard ResearchBharatpurIndia

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