Integrating Retinal Variables into Graph Visualizing Multivariate Data to Increase Visual Features

  • Hong Thi Nguyen
  • Lieu Thi Le
  • Cam Thi Ngoc Huynh
  • Thuan Thi My Pham
  • Anh Thi Van Tran
  • Dang Van Pham
  • Phuoc Vinh TranEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering book series (LNICST, volume 298)


The efficiency of a graph visualizing multivariate data is not only subjectively evaluated by human visual perception but also objectively estimated by visual features of graph. For a designed graph, it is necessary to improve visual features to enable human to extract better information from data. Integrating retinal variables into graph is an approach to increasing visual features of graph. In this study, the constituents of graph are grouped into classes of marks by qualitative and quantitative characteristics. The retinal variables are studied and structured to integrate into the classes of marks. A process of five steps is proposed to increase visual features by integrating retinal variables into graph. The process is illustrated with two case studies, increasing visual features of bus space-time map with qualitative mark classes and increasing visual features of the graph representing the data of hand-foot-mouth epidemic in Binhduong with qualitative and quantitative mark classes.


Visual features Retinal variable Visual perception Visualization Multivariate data 



The paper is sponsored by Hochiminh City Open University, Vietnam.


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Copyright information

© ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hong Thi Nguyen
    • 1
  • Lieu Thi Le
    • 2
  • Cam Thi Ngoc Huynh
    • 3
  • Thuan Thi My Pham
    • 4
  • Anh Thi Van Tran
    • 5
  • Dang Van Pham
    • 6
    • 7
  • Phuoc Vinh Tran
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.University of Information Technology, Vietnam National University – HCMCHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  2. 2.Thu Dau Mot UniversityBinhduongVietnam
  3. 3.Kiengiang Department of Education and TrainingKiengiangVietnam
  4. 4.Hochiminh City Open UniversityHochiminh CityVietnam
  5. 5.Hochiminh College of EconomicsHochiminh CityVietnam
  6. 6.Nguyen Tat Thanh UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  7. 7.Graduate University of Science and TechnologyHanoiVietnam

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