Advertisement

How to Design and Measure a Serious Game Aiming at Emotional Engagement of Social Anxiety

  • Imre Dániel Báldy
  • Nikolaj Hansen
  • Thomas BjørnerEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11899)

Abstract

This experimental study outlines how a serious game can be designed with the aim of simulating an emotional sense of what it is like to have social anxiety disorder. Novel within the study is the use of psychophysiological measures (galvanic skin response and heart rate) as ways to organize specific game events for later interview sessions. Card sorting was used as a projective technique in the interviews as a way to have participants talk about their emotional states. The psychophysiological data, measured by Mionix Naos QG mouse, was used to support self-reported methods consisting of a questionnaire and interviews. The study is based on 28 university students, and tested in a lab environment to minimize external distractions. The game was designed with three different scenarios, and it was concluded that one scenario in particular successfully simulated an emotional sense of what is like to have social anxiety disorder. There is still much future work to do on how to use and interpret psychophysiological measurement within game research. There is also potential for increased validity and reliability using methods other than self-reports, especially with emotional engagement as a research focus.

Keywords

Serious games Psychophysiological methods Card sorting Game design Social anxiety disorder 

References

  1. 1.
    Purdon, C., Antony, M., Monteiro, S., Swinson, R.P.: Social anxiety in college students. J. Anxiety Disord. 15(3), 203–215 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Russell, G., Topham, P.: The impact of social anxiety on student learning and well-being in higher education. J. Ment. Health 21(4), 375–385 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hakami, R.M., et al.: Social anxiety disorder and its impact in undergraduate students at Jazan Univ. Saudi Arabia. Ment. Illn. 9(2), 42–47 (2017)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Russell, G.C., Shaw, S.: A study to investigate the prevalence of social anxiety in a sample of higher education students in the UK. J. Ment. Health 18(3), 198–206 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fleming, T.M., et al.: Serious games and gamification for mental health: current status and promising directions. Front. Psychiatry 7, 215 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miloff, A., Marklund, A., Carlbring, P.: The challenger app for social anxiety disorder: new advances in mobile psychological treatment. Internet Interv. 2(4), 382–391 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roepke, A., Jaffee, S., Riffle, O., McGonigal, J., Broome, R., Bez, M.: Randomized controlled trial of SuperBetter, a smartphone-based/Internet-based self-help tool to reduce depressive symptoms. Games Health J. 4(3), 235–246 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ravaja, N.: Contributions of psychophysiology to media research: review and recommendations. Media Psychol. 6(2), 193–235 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Parsons, T.D., Reinebold, J.L.: Adaptive virtual environments for neuropsychological assessment in serious games. IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 58(2), 197–204 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ritterfeld, U., Cody, M., Vorderer, P.: Introduction. In: Ritterfeld, U., Cody, M., Vorderer, P. (eds.) Serious Games: Mechanics and Effects. Routledge, New York (2009). https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4614-1126-0
  11. 11.
    Boucsein, W.: Electrodermal Activity, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1126-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Figner, B., Murphy, R.O.: Using skin conductance in judgment and decision making research. In: A Handbook of Process Tracing Methods for Decision Research, pp. 163–184 (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jerčić, P., Sundstedt, V.: Practicing emotion-regulation through biofeedback on the decision-making performance in the context of serious games: a systematic review. Entertain. Comput. 29, 75–86 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brockmyer, J.H., Fox, C.M., Curtiss, K.A., McBroom, E., Burkhart, K.M., Pidruzny, J.N.: The development of the game engagement questionnaire: a measure of engagement in video gameplaying. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 45(4), 624–634 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schønau-Fog, H., Bjørner, T.: “Sure, I Would Like to Continue” a method for mapping the experience of engagement in video games. Bull. Sci. Technol. Soc. 32(5), 405–412 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Busselle, R., Bilandzic, H.: Measuring narrative engagement. Media Psychol. 12(4), 321–347 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bjørner, T.: Qualitative Methods for Consumer Research: The Value of the Qualitative Approach in Theory and Practice. Hans Reitzel, Copenhagen (2015)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Van Cleemput, K., Vandebosch, H., Poels, K., Bastiaensens, S., DeSmet, A., De Bourdeaudhuij, I.: The development of a serious game on cyberbullying. In: Cyberbullying: from Theory to Intervention, p. 93 (2015)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Heiselberg, L., Bjørner, T.: How to evaluate emotional experiences in television drama series: improving viewer evaluations using a combination of psychophysiological measurements and self-reports. Behav. Inf. Technol. 37(9), 884–893 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Adobe Inc. Mixamo. https://www.mixamo.com/#/. Accessed 1 July 2019
  21. 21.
    Kivikangas, J.M., et al.: A review of the use of psychophysiological methods in game research. J. Gaming Virtual Worlds 3(3), 181–199 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Architecture, Design and Media TechnologyAalborg UniversityCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations