Effect of Salt Water on Unconfined Compressive Strength for Cement Kiln Dust

  • Mahmoud E. HassanEmail author
  • Ayman L. Fayed
  • Mohamed Y. Abd El-Latif
Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)


CKD is a fine cement powder produced in large amounts as a by-product during cement manufacturing. It is mainly composed of oxidized, anhydrous and micron-sized particles. It is considered a major health hazard where the Ministry of Environment recommended its beneficial utilization uses or getting rid of it.

The maximum load, which can be transmitted to the soil by foundation, depends on the resistance of soil to the shearing deformation and compressibility. In this study, unconfined compression strength tests were performed on fresh CKD samples.

Different factors affecting the samples preparing process were investigated in the current experimental study including the amount of water required to form the samples and the type of the mixing water (fresh water and salt water). The percentages of water were 50%, 60% and 70% from CKD sample weight.

Due to the proximity of most of the cement factories in Egypt to the sea, the experimental study confirmed that using the salt water in unconfined compressive strength test for the CKD is the most favorable method. Also, the tests proved the ability to utilize the CKD rather than disposal in landfills. Results of the performed experimental study showed that, using of salt water/seawater leads to increase the unconfined compressive strength and decreasing the failure strain.



The used CKD material and corresponding chemical analysis results are provided by Arabian Cement Company (ACC) in Ain Sokhna, Egypt. Their permission for using this material and provided information are gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahmoud E. Hassan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ayman L. Fayed
    • 2
  • Mohamed Y. Abd El-Latif
    • 2
  1. 1.Construction and Building6th UniversityGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Geotechnical Engineering DepartmentAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt

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