Exploration of Early Civilization Through Restoring Structural Stability of DJOZER Step Pyramid (Part II)
Step pyramid is the major archaeological unit of Djoser complex at Saqqara archaeological site. It is suffering now from various and serious deterioration and degradation features from various sources Rescue and Restoration studies of the first stone building ever witnessed i.e. pyramid of Djozer, Sakkara site, Egypt, included several aspects. Aspects under consideration in present study are concerned with geotechnical and geo environmental impacts on Djozer pyramid deterioration features of sub-surface units.
Main aspects dealt with are analysis of causes and sources of structural deterioration features of subsurface units of the pyramid itself such as galleries and entrances, burial shaft and its ceiling failure zone, and burial chamber and granitic sarcophagus. Field study plan has been carried out to diagnose deterioration features, analysis of building material, find out properties and behavior of hosting rock media, and types of structural instabilities.
rock formation partial failure and collapses
change of galleries section, shape and dimensions
separation of roof rock formation
buckling in galleries walls
failure of rocks at the zones of intersect of galleries and vertical shaft
Failure and deterioration of exposed swelling clay formation hosting burial shaft walls, galleries, walls of burial chamber ….etc.
Authors are indeed thankful for following archaeologists and engineers for their help and encouragement, and their fruitful archaeological and engineering discussions which made present work and its results real and possible:
* Prof. Dr. Z. Hawas
* Arch. O. Shimy, K. Waheed, & S. Farag.
* Eng. W. Abu Ela
Finally thanks are due to SCA _ PS for financing the study.
- 1.Dumas, F.: Civilization of Ancient Egypt. SCA. (1998). (in Arabic) Google Scholar
- 2.Fakhry, A.: Egyptian pyramids, the Anglo-Egyptian (2007). (in Arabic)Google Scholar
- 3.Badawy, A.: History of ancient Egyptian architecture. Part I. SCA (1988). (in Arabic)Google Scholar
- 4.Imam, H.F. et al.: Technical reports of lab. and field tests and investigations of all structural materials and rock media, including stones and mortars. SCA (2002)Google Scholar
- 5.Imam, H.F. et al.: Surveying documentation of step pyramid, both surface and inside units. SCA & Al (2002)Google Scholar
- 6.Imam, H.F., et al.: Documentation of various types and zones of deterioration, degradation and structural instabilities. SCA (2002)Google Scholar
- 7.Zang, A., Stephansson, O.: Stress Field of the Earth Crust. Springer Science Business Media (2010)Google Scholar
- 8.Hoek, E., Brown, E.: Underground Excavation in Rock. IMM (1982)Google Scholar
- 9.Revnt, I., Rode, A.: Experimental Methods of Studying Soil Structure. Amerind Pub (1969)Google Scholar
- 10.Brady, B.H.G., Brown, E.T.: Rock Mechanics For Underground Mining, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall (1993)Google Scholar
- 11.Gramberg, J.: A Non-conventional View on Rock Mechanics and Fracture Mechanics, Rotterdam (1989)Google Scholar
- 12.Imam, H.F.: Engineering Geology and Methods of Application in Civil Engineering. Elalamya Publishing (2010). (In Arabic)Google Scholar
- 13.Lauer, J.: Saqqarq, City of the Dead (1990)Google Scholar