Exploration of Early Civilization Through Restoring Structural Stability of DJOZER Step Pyramid (Part II)

  • Radwa Mahmoud
  • Hassan F. ImamEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)


Step pyramid is the major archaeological unit of Djoser complex at Saqqara archaeological site. It is suffering now from various and serious deterioration and degradation features from various sources Rescue and Restoration studies of the first stone building ever witnessed i.e. pyramid of Djozer, Sakkara site, Egypt, included several aspects. Aspects under consideration in present study are concerned with geotechnical and geo environmental impacts on Djozer pyramid deterioration features of sub-surface units.

Main aspects dealt with are analysis of causes and sources of structural deterioration features of subsurface units of the pyramid itself such as galleries and entrances, burial shaft and its ceiling failure zone, and burial chamber and granitic sarcophagus. Field study plan has been carried out to diagnose deterioration features, analysis of building material, find out properties and behavior of hosting rock media, and types of structural instabilities.

Analysis of results revealed that modes of structural instability of subsurface units took form as:
  • rock formation partial failure and collapses

  • change of galleries section, shape and dimensions

  • separation of roof rock formation

  • buckling in galleries walls

  • failure of rocks at the zones of intersect of galleries and vertical shaft

  • Failure and deterioration of exposed swelling clay formation hosting burial shaft walls, galleries, walls of burial chamber ….etc.



Authors are indeed thankful for following archaeologists and engineers for their help and encouragement, and their fruitful archaeological and engineering discussions which made present work and its results real and possible:

* Prof. Dr. Z. Hawas

* Arch. O. Shimy, K. Waheed, & S. Farag.

* Eng. W. Abu Ela

Finally thanks are due to SCA _ PS for financing the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Engineering at Housing Building and Research CenterCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Rock Mechanics & Underground Structures, Faculty of EngineeringCairo UniversityCairoEgypt

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