Oxides of Carbon Entrapment for Environmental Friendly Geomaterials Ash Derivation

  • Kennedy OnyeloweEmail author
  • A. Bunyamin Salahudeen
  • Adrian Eberemu
  • Charles Ezugwu
  • Talal Amhadi
  • George Alaneme
Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)


Environmental friendly, environmental efficient, and sustainable civil engineering works have been studied with a focus on utilizing the derivatives of solid waste recycling and reuse to achieving infrastructural activities with low or zero carbon emission. The direct combustion model, which is a solid waste incinerator sodium hydroxide-oxides of carbon entrapment model (SWI-NaOH-OCEM) developed in the cause of this research has achieved a zero carbon release. It has been shown that CO and CO2 emission during direct combustion can be entirely entrapped during the derivation of solid waste based supplementary cementing materials used as replacement for ordinary Portland cement in soft soils re-engineering works. This is achieved via the affinity between sodium hydroxide and oxides of carbon which gives rise to baking soda. Geomaterial ash has been synthesized for use in soft soil re-engineering with no hazardous emissions. The overall assessment of the present review work has left the environment free of the hazards of CO and CO2 emission. It was shown that these supplementary cementing materials derived from solid wastes improve the engineering properties of treated soft clay and expansive soils. It has been shown that solid waste recycling and reuse is a hub to achieving environmental friendly, environmental efficient and sustainable infrastructural development on the global scale.


Oxides of Carbon Entrapment Reuse of solid waste geomaterials Environmental friendly re-engineering Environmental efficient re-engineering Sustainable re-engineering Soft soils re-engineering 


Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest in this work.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringMichael Okpara University of AgricultureUmudike, UmuahiaNigeria
  2. 2.Research Group of Geotechnical Engineering, Construction Materials and SustainabilityHanoi University of Mining and GeologyHanoiVietnam
  3. 3.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of JosJosNigeria
  4. 4.Department of Civil EngineeringAhmadu Bello UniversityZariaNigeria
  5. 5.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringAlex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike IkwoAbakalikiNigeria
  6. 6.Department of Construction and Civil Engineering, Ecole de Technologie Superieure (ETS)University of QuebecMontrealCanada

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