Understanding Pile Foundations Design Through Case Histories of New Tagus Bridge and Leziria Bridge
In this paper pile foundation design and soil-structure interaction are referred. The ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states are introduced. The potentially liquefiable soils and remedial measures are addressed. Two case studies related with pile design of New Tagus bridge based in pile load tests and the pile design and liquefaction potential evaluation of Leziria bridge foundations are presented. Some conclusions are drawn.
Special thanks are due to GATTEL and NOVAPONTE for the permission to publish the results of New Tagus bridge. It is important to refer the contribution of Virgilio Rebelo and Vicente Rodrigues for geological studies.
For Leziria Tagus River Bridge several construction companies and experts were involved, namely Construction Consortium and Design Group. The studies carried out by them are greatly acknowledged. The contribution of Virgilio Rebelo for geological studies is important to refer.
The field investigations were carried by Geocontrole and LNEC, and the laboratory tests were performed by Geocontrole.
Special thanks are due to TACE and particularly to Mr. Secundino Vilar and also to BRISA for the permission to publish this paper.
It is important to refer the contributions by IST for the static pile tests and also for the dynamic pile tests.
The reception tests for piles were carried out by Geosolve.
- ASTM D1143: Standard Test Method for Piles Under Static Axial Compressive Load (1981)Google Scholar
- Bozozuk, M.: Tolerate movements of bridge foundations. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Stockholm, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 699–700 (1981)Google Scholar
- Burland, J.B., Wroth, C.P.: Settlement of buildings and associated damage. SOA review. In: Conference Settlement of Structures, Cambridge, pp. 611–654. Pentech Press, London (1974)Google Scholar
- Cetin, K.O., Seed, R.B., Kiureghion: Reliability based assessment of seismic soil liquefaction initiation. In: Ansal, A. (ed.) XV ICSMGE TC4 Satellite Conference on Lessons Learned from Recent Strong Earthquakes, pp. 327–332 (2001)Google Scholar
- EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design. Part 1 (1997)Google Scholar
- EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance (1998a)Google Scholar
- EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - Part 5 Foundations, Retaining Structures and Getechnical Aspects (1998b)Google Scholar
- Ferreira, S., Rebelo, V., Ribeiro, J.: Pile Foundations for Leziria Bridge, 11 CNG, Coimbra (2008). (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
- Gazetas, G., Mylonakis, G.: Seismic soil structure interaction: new evidence and emerging issues. In: Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, ASCE II, pp. 1119–1174 (1998)Google Scholar
- ICIST-IST: Experimental Pile Load Tests. Report. New Tagus River Crossing at Carregado, August 2005Google Scholar
- Imai, T.: P and S wave velocities of the ground in Japan. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Tokyo, Japan (1977)Google Scholar
- INA (International Navigation Association): Seismic Design Guidelines for Port Structures. A. A. Balkema Publishers (2001)Google Scholar
- Institution of Civil Engineers: Piling – Model Procedures and Specifications, London (1978)Google Scholar
- Ishihara, K.: Soil Behaviour in Earthquakes Geotechnics. Clarendon Press, Oxford (1996)Google Scholar
- IST: Generation of Response and Displacements Spectra of Alluvial Soils of Carregado Site, February 2004Google Scholar
- Meyerhof, G.G.: Discussion on Paper by Skemton, Peck and MacDonald- Settlements Analysis of Six Structures in Chicago and London. In: Proceedings of the Inst. (iv. Eng. 5, nº1) (1956)Google Scholar
- Moulton, L.K.: Tolerable Movement Criteria for Highway Bridges, report Nº FHWA-TS-85-228, 86 pp. Federal Highway Administratio, Washington, DC (1986)Google Scholar
- NCEER: Proceedings of NCCER Workshop on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils, Summary Report, Edited by T. Leslie Youd and I.M. Idriss, National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, University of Buffalo, Technical Report NCEER-97-0022 (1997)Google Scholar
- Oliveira, J.B., Gomes, J.P., Sêco e Pinto, P.S., Pina, C.A.: Dynamic tests performed on large piles. 11 WCEE. Acapulco, Mexico, Portugal (1996)Google Scholar
- Oliveira, R., Sêco e Pinto, P., Rebelo, V., Rodrigues, V.: Geological and Geotechnical Studies for the Design of Vasco de Gama Bridge (1997). (in Portuguese). VI CNGGoogle Scholar
- Polshin, D.E., Tokar, R.A.: Maximum allowable non-uniform settlement of structures. In: Proceedings of 4th International Conference Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, London, pp. 402–405. Butterworths Scientific Publications (1957)Google Scholar
- Portugal, A., Perry da Câmara, A., Virtuoso, F., Rebelo, V.: New Crossing Across Tagus River in Carregado. JPEE, Lisboa (2005). (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
- Rodrigues, L.F.: Methods for seismic site investigation in engineering geology. The importance of shear wave. Research thesis, LNEC (1979). (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
- RSA: Portuguese safety and actions code for buildings and bridges (1983). (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
- Sêco e Pinto, P.S.: Pile Foundations. Pile Design Following EUROCODE 7. Portuguese Society for Geotechnique (25th birthday), pp. II-1–II-67 (1997)Google Scholar
- Sêco e Pinto, P.S., Sousa Coutinho, A.G.F.: Deformation of Soils and Displacements of Structures, X ECSMFE, Florence, pp. 539–542 (1991)Google Scholar
- Sêco e Pinto, P.S., Oliveira, R.: A recent difficult foundation problem: the case of the new tagus bridge. In: 4th International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, St. Louis, USA (1998)Google Scholar
- Sêco e Pinto, P.S., Correia, J., Vieira, A.: Evaluation of liquefaction potential of a site located in the South of Portugal. In: Proceedings of the Discussion Special Technical Session on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering during 14th ICSMFE, Hamburg, pp. 113–124. Edited by Pedro S. Sêco e Pinto. Published by Balkema (1997)Google Scholar
- Seed, H.B., Harder, L.F.: SPT-based analysis of cyclic pore pressure generation and undrained residual strength. In: Proceedings of Memorial Symposium of H. B. Seed, vol. 2, pp. 351–376 (1990)Google Scholar
- Seed, H.B., Idriss, I.M.: Ground Motions and Soil Liquefaction During Earthquakes. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, California (1982)Google Scholar
- Skempton, A.W., MacDonald, D.H.: Allowable settlement of buildings. In: Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, Part 3, no. 5, pp. 727–768 (1956)Google Scholar
- Stokoe, K.H., Darendeli, M.B., Andrus, R.D., Brown, L.T.: Dynamic soil properties: laboratory, field and correlation studies. Theme Lecture. In: Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Lisboa. Edited by Pedro Sêco e Pinto. Published by A. Balkema, vol. 3, pp. 811–845 (1999)Google Scholar
- TC4 (ISSMGE): Case Histories of Post-Liquefaction Remediation. Committee on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering. Technical Committee for Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering (2001)Google Scholar
- TC4, ISSMFE: Manual for zonation of seismic geotechnical hazards, published by the Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Tokyo (1993)Google Scholar
- Tokimatsu, K., Seed, H.B.: Simplified procedure for the evaluation of settlements in clean sands. Report nº UCB/EERC 84/16. University of California (1984)Google Scholar
- Tokimatsu, K., Kuwayama, S., Tamura, S.: Liquefaction potential evaluation based on Rayleigh wave investigation and its comparison with field behavior. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, St. Louis, 11–15 March, vol. I, pp. 357–364 (1991)Google Scholar
- Tokimatsu, K., Seed, H.B.: Evaluation of settlements in sands due to earthquake shaking. JGE, ASCE 113, 861–878 (1987)Google Scholar
- Youd, T L., Gilstrap, S.D.: Liquefaction and deformation of silty and fine-grained soils. General Report. In: Proceedings of the of 2nd International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Lisboa, vol. 3, pp. 1013–1020. Edited by Pedro Sêco e Pinto. Published by A. Balkema (1999)Google Scholar