METABIOTICS pp 23-25 | Cite as

Factors and Agents that Modify the Composition and Functions of Symbiotic Microbiota; Diagnostic Methods for Microecological Imbalance and its Consequences

  • Boris A. Shenderov
  • Alexander V. Sinitsa
  • Mikhail M. Zakharchenko
  • Christine Lang


According to the latest data, human microbiome variability is only by 10% related to individual genetic traits; microbiome differences between individuals are largely associated with the effects of various endogenous and exogenous factors: diet in the first place (Blum 2017; Falony et al. 2016; Zhernakova et al. 2016). Out of 69 evaluated factors, various therapeutics (over 10% varieties) are playing the most important role in modification of gut microbiota composition (Falony et al. 2016). Starvation, low physical activity, diets with increased levels of sugar, fat, with low dietary fiber content, processing aids and heavy metal salts contained in foods, alcohol consumption, pesticide and radiation exposure, the influence of space flights, surgeries, bacterial and viral infections, other factors and agents or their combinations can reversibly or irreversibly alter human microbial ecology (Shenderov 2014b; Carding et al. 2015; Dietert and Dietert 2015; Maguire and Maguire 2019; Pflughoeft and Versalovic 2012; Shenderov 2011b; Sonnenburg and Backhed 2016). Of all pharmaceuticals, antibiotics have the most pronounced negative effect on human indigenous microbiota. Many immunosuppressors, antihistamines in pharmacological concentrations also inhibit the growth of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, enterococci, Escherichia coli and other commensal and symbiotic gut microorganisms. Also, microecological disorders are caused by the administration of local anesthetics, absorbents, nauseants, enveloping agents, laxatives, expectorants, choleretics and other therapeutics. Certain colorants, nitrites, nitrates and some hormones can be potential dysbiotic agents (Shenderov 2014b; Maguire and Maguire 2019). According to Swedish researchers’ data (Bengmark 2013), half of the 2000 pharmaceuticals registered in this country can cause side effects in the human digestive tract (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation etc.) associated with microbiota imbalance in this system. In a context where the compensation abilities of the host-microbiota system are exceeded by negative effects on microbial ecology in length and intensity, microecological disorders (dysbioses) develop, as well as the imbalance of systems controlling intra- and interpopulation symbiotic relationship between the host and its microbiota and, consequently, the risks of numerous diseases. Thus, the negative stress effects of a multitude of biogenous and abiotic factors conflict with adaptive capabilities of modern humans and lead to a considerable unbalancing of those gut microbiota functions that are connected with maintaining dietary, metabolic, epigenetic, neurohormonal and immune homeostasis (Shenderov 2008; Shenderov 2016a).


  1. Bengmark S. Processed Foods, Dysbiosis, Systemic Inflammation, and Poor Health. Current Nutrition & Food Science. 2013;9(2):113–143. doi: Scholar
  2. Berer K, Mues M, Koutrolos M, Rasbi ZA, Boziki M, Johner C et al. Commensal microbiota and myelin autoantigen cooperate to trigger autoimmune demyelination. Nature. 2011;479:538–541. doi: Scholar
  3. Bezrodny SL, Shenderov BA. Intestinal microbiota as a source of novel biomarkers of ageing. Journal of Restorative Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2016;1:21–28 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  4. Blum HE. The human microbiome. Advan Med Science. 2017;62:414–420. doi: Scholar
  5. Bomba A, Branderburova A, Ricanyova J, Strojny L, Chmelarova A et al. The role of probiotics and natural bioactive compounds in modulation of the common molecular pathways in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cancer. Biologia. 2012;67:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carding S, Verbeke K, Vipond DT, Corfe BM, Owen LJ. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in disease. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2015;26:26191. doi: Scholar
  7. Dietert RR, Dietert JM. The microbiome and sustainable healthcare. Healthcare. 2015;3:100–129. doi: Scholar
  8. Falony G, Joossens M, Vieira-Silva S, Wang J, Darzi Y et al. Population-level analysis of gut microbiome variation. Science. 2016;352(6285):560–564. doi: Scholar
  9. Frank DN, Zhu W, Sartor RB, Li E. Investigating the biological and clinical significance of human dysbioses. Trends Microbiol. 2011;19(9):427–434. doi: Scholar
  10. Gilbert JA, Quinn RA, Debelius J, Morton J, Garg N et al. Microbiome-wide association studies link dynamic microbial consortia to disease. Nature. 2016;535:94–103. doi: Scholar
  11. Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell. 2011;144(5):646–674. doi: Scholar
  12. Karczewski KJ, Snyder MP. Integrative omics for health and disease. Nature Reviews Genetics. 2018;19(5):299–309. doi: Scholar
  13. López-Otín C, Blasco MA, Partridge L, Serrano M, Kroemer G. The hallmarks of aging. Cell. 2013;153(6):1194–1217. doi: Scholar
  14. Maguire M, Maguire G. Gut dysbiosis, leaky gut, and intestinal epithelial proliferation in neurological disorders: towards the development of a new therapeutic using amino acids, prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics. Rev Neurosci. 2019;30(2):179–201. doi: Scholar
  15. Meisel JC, Grice EA. The human microbiome. Chapter 4. In: Ginsburg G, Willard H, editors. Genomic and Precision Medicine (Third Edition). Elsevier Inc; 2017. p. 63–77. doi: Scholar
  16. O’Flaherty S, Kleenhammer TR. The impact of omic technologies on the study of food microbes. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 2011;2:353–371. doi: Scholar
  17. Pflughoeft KJ, Versalovic J. Human microbiome in health and disease. Ann Rev Pathol Mech Dis. 2012;7:99–122. doi: Scholar
  18. Shenderov BA, Midtvedt T. Epigenomic programing: a future way to health? Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2014;25:24145. doi: Scholar
  19. Shenderov BA. Functional nutrition and its role in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. Moscow: DeLi print; 2008 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  20. Shenderov BA. OMIC-technologies and their importance in current prophylactic and regenerative medicine. Journal of Restorative Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2012;3:70–78 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  21. Shenderov BA. Probiotic (symbiotic) bacterial languages. Anaerobe. 2011;17(6):490–495. doi: Scholar
  22. Sonnenburg JL, Backhed F. Diet-microbiota interactions as moderators of human metabolism. Nature. 2016;535(7610):56–64. doi: Scholar
  23. Suvorov A. Gut microbiota, probiotics, and human health. Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health. 2013;32(3):81–91. doi: Scholar
  24. Zhernakova A, Kurilshikov A, Bonder MJ, Tigchelaar EF, Schirmer M et al. Population-based metagenomics analysis reveals markers for gut microbiome composition and diversity. Science. 2016;352(6285):565–569. doi: Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Boris A. Shenderov
    • 1
  • Alexander V. Sinitsa
    • 2
  • Mikhail M. Zakharchenko
    • 2
  • Christine Lang
    • 3
  1. 1.Research Laboratory for Design & Implementation of Personalized Nutrition-Related Product & DietsK.G. Razumovsky University of Technology & ManagementMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Kraft Ltd.St. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.MBCC GroupBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations