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METABIOTICS pp 23-25 | Cite as

Factors and Agents that Modify the Composition and Functions of Symbiotic Microbiota; Diagnostic Methods for Microecological Imbalance and its Consequences

  • Boris A. Shenderov
  • Alexander V. Sinitsa
  • Mikhail M. Zakharchenko
  • Christine Lang
Chapter
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

According to the latest data, human microbiome variability is only by 10% related to individual genetic traits; microbiome differences between individuals are largely associated with the effects of various endogenous and exogenous factors: diet in the first place (Blum 2017; Falony et al. 2016; Zhernakova et al. 2016). Out of 69 evaluated factors, various therapeutics (over 10% varieties) are playing the most important role in modification of gut microbiota composition (Falony et al. 2016). Starvation, low physical activity, diets with increased levels of sugar, fat, with low dietary fiber content, processing aids and heavy metal salts contained in foods, alcohol consumption, pesticide and radiation exposure, the influence of space flights, surgeries, bacterial and viral infections, other factors and agents or their combinations can reversibly or irreversibly alter human microbial ecology (Shenderov 2014b; Carding et al. 2015; Dietert and Dietert 2015; Maguire and Maguire 2019; Pflughoeft and Versalovic 2012; Shenderov 2011b; Sonnenburg and Backhed 2016). Of all pharmaceuticals, antibiotics have the most pronounced negative effect on human indigenous microbiota. Many immunosuppressors, antihistamines in pharmacological concentrations also inhibit the growth of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, enterococci, Escherichia coli and other commensal and symbiotic gut microorganisms. Also, microecological disorders are caused by the administration of local anesthetics, absorbents, nauseants, enveloping agents, laxatives, expectorants, choleretics and other therapeutics. Certain colorants, nitrites, nitrates and some hormones can be potential dysbiotic agents (Shenderov 2014b; Maguire and Maguire 2019). According to Swedish researchers’ data (Bengmark 2013), half of the 2000 pharmaceuticals registered in this country can cause side effects in the human digestive tract (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation etc.) associated with microbiota imbalance in this system. In a context where the compensation abilities of the host-microbiota system are exceeded by negative effects on microbial ecology in length and intensity, microecological disorders (dysbioses) develop, as well as the imbalance of systems controlling intra- and interpopulation symbiotic relationship between the host and its microbiota and, consequently, the risks of numerous diseases. Thus, the negative stress effects of a multitude of biogenous and abiotic factors conflict with adaptive capabilities of modern humans and lead to a considerable unbalancing of those gut microbiota functions that are connected with maintaining dietary, metabolic, epigenetic, neurohormonal and immune homeostasis (Shenderov 2008; Shenderov 2016a).

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Boris A. Shenderov
    • 1
  • Alexander V. Sinitsa
    • 2
  • Mikhail M. Zakharchenko
    • 2
  • Christine Lang
    • 3
  1. 1.Research Laboratory for Design & Implementation of Personalized Nutrition-Related Product & DietsK.G. Razumovsky University of Technology & ManagementMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Kraft Ltd.St. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.MBCC GroupBerlinGermany

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