Metabolic Relationship Between the Host and Its Gut Microbiota
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Symbiotic microorganisms ever-present in the organisms of adult people form over 25 thousand different biologically and pharmacologically active compounds. With regard to potential biological effects, the most extensively studied are short-chain fatty and bile acids, choline metabolites, the derivatives of phenol, benzene and phenyl, indole derivatives, vitamins, polyamines, lipids, enzymes and other proteins, amino acids (Beloborodova et al. 2011, Shenderov et al. 2010, Carding et al. 2015, Chernevskaya and Beloborodova 2018, Clarke et al. 2014, Engevik and Versalovic 2017, Ilinskaya et al. 2017, Maguire and Maguire 2019, Nicholson et al. 2012, Neis et al. 2015, Shaikh and Sreeja 2017), catecholamines and other neuromodulators (Oleskin et al. 2016, Clarke et al. 2014, El Aidy et al. 2016, Ilinskaya et al. 2017, Maguire and Maguire 2019, Oleskin et al. 2017), gas molecules (Shenderov 2015, Carding et al. 2015) and many others (Chervinets et al. 2018, Carding et al. 2015, Engevik and Versalovic 2017, Nicholson et al. 2012). In healthy people, gut symbiotic microorganisms are the source of these microbial bioactive molecules. In the process of evolution, humans have been selecting and retaining the kinds of microorganisms that produced substances best of all corresponding to the healthy organism in their physical, chemical and biological characteristics (valency, isotope condition, structural, stereoisomeric shape of the molecule, solubility, dispersity, oxidation state, half-life, safety and other parameters) (Shenderov 2014b, Bik et al. 2018, Shenderov 2011b, Sonnenburg and Backhed 2016, Wilson and Nicholson 2017). The presence in the digestive tract of various nutrients and diverse components of gut symbiotic microbiota may considerably alter the intensity of effects of probiotic bacterial metabolites or even completely eliminate their action. Violation of homeostasis of these molecules can often be a risk factor for different diseases (Shenderov 2014b, Beloborodova and Osipov 2000, Clarke et al. 2014, Maguire and Maguire 2019).
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