Endocrine and Metabolic Consequences of Turner Syndrome

  • Mette H. Viuff
  • Claus H. GravholtEmail author


Numerous important advances have been noted during recent years. These advances cover all specialty fields involved in the care of girls and women with TS, including (1) diagnostic and genetic issues, (2) growth and development during childhood and adolescence, (3) congenital and acquired cardiovascular disease, (4) transition and adult care, and (5) other comorbidities and neurocognitive issues. Here, we will present the most important new advances concerning endocrine and metabolic care of Turner syndrome.

Osteoporosis, diabetes, both type 1 and 2, hypothyroidism, obesity, and a host of other endocrinological diseases and conditions are seen more frequently in Turner syndrome in the long term. Other autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease, are seen with quite increased frequency. Prevention, intervention, and proper treatment is only just being recognized.

Morbidity and mortality is quite elevated and many conditions need to be vigorously and routinely checked for and diagnosed as early as possible in order to prevent long-term health consequences. Endocrine and metabolic disease contributes significantly to morbidity and is contributing to the reduced life span of women with TS and much of this morbidity can be prevented.


Autoimmune disease Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Celiac disease Inflammatory bowel disease Hormone replacement therapy Obesity Metabolic syndrome Osteoporosis Rheumatoid arthritis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology and Medical Research LaboratoriesAarhus University HospitalAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Endocrinology and Internal MedicineAarhus University HospitalAarhusDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Molecular MedicineAarhus University HospitalAarhusDenmark
  4. 4.Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine and Medical Research LaboratoriesAarhus University HospitalAarhusDenmark

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