Enhanced Scrambled Prime Key Encryption Using Chaos Theory and Steganography

  • Shanmukha Shreyas Vedantam
  • Kushalnath Devaruppala
  • Ravi Shankar NanduriEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies book series (LNDECT, volume 38)


In this paper we have analyzed the strength and weakness of scrambled prime key encryption proposed by Haidar et al. [10] for data encryption using key elements which are prime numbers. However, this scheme exhibits its vulnerabilities in the face of chosen plaintext attack. Hence we, in this paper, extended the algorithm by introducing chaos theory and steganography, which offers better security and robustness. We have taken the partially encrypted text from [10] and embedded the same in a carrier image. In this process, we have chosen a novel chaos generator to select the pixels into which the text is to be embedded.


Double rod pendulum Pendulum velocity Pendulum acceleration Encryption Decryption Steganography Chaos theory 



Authors are thankful to the management and the principal of Geethanjali College of Engineering and Technology for all the support, encouragement, both professionally and financially, extended to us in carrying out this work.


  1. 1.
    Stallings, W.: Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practices, 4th edn. Prentice Hall, Saddle River (2005). ISBN-13 978-0-13-187316-2Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schneier, B.: Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York City (1995). ISBN-13 978-0471128458zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Daley, W.D., Kammer, R.G.: Data encryption standard (DES). U.S. Department of Commerce/National Institute of Standards and Technology, Federal Information Processing Standards Publication No. 46, National Bureau of Standards, 15 January 1977 (1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schneier, B.: The blowfish encryption algorithm. Dr. Dobb’s J. Softw. Tools 19(4), 98–99 (1994)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daemen, J., Rijmen, V.: The Design of Rijndael: AES - The Advanced Encryption Standard. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Daemen, J., Rijmen, V.: FIPS PUB 197, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce, November 2001.
  7. 7.
    Rivest, R.L., Shamir, A., Adleman, L.: A method for obtaining digital signatures and public key cryptosystems. Commun. ACM 21, 120–126 (1978)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Koblitz, N.: Elliptic curve crypto systems. Math. Comput. 48(177), 203–209 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Miller, V.S.: Use of elliptic curves in cryptography. In: Williams, H C. (ed.) CRYPTO. LNCS, vol. 218, pp. 417–426. Springer (1986)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haidar, I., Haidar, A.M., Haraty, R.A.: Scrambled prime key encryption. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Management of Emergent Digital EcoSystems (MEDES 2018, Tokyo, Japan, 25–28 September 2018, 6 p. ACM, New York (2018).
  11. 11.
    Pecora, L.M., Carroll, T.L.: Synchronization in chaotic systems. Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 821 (1990)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Raghuwanshi, P., Nair, J.S., Jain, S.: A secure transmission of 2D image using randomized chaotic mapping. In: Symposium on Colossal Data Analysis and Networking (CDAN). IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mao, Y., Chen, G., Lian, S.: A novel fast image encryption scheme based on 3D chaotic baker maps. Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 14(10), 3613–3624 (2004)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li, S., Chen, G., Zheng, X.: Chaos-based encryption for digital images and videos. In: Multimedia Security Handbook, Chap. 4. CRC Press LLC, February 2004Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kumar, T., Chauhan, S.: Image cryptography with matrix array symmetric key using chaos based approach. Int. J. Comput. Netw. Inf. Secur. 10, 60–66 (2018). Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bandyopadhyay, D., Dasgupta, K., Mandal, J., Dutta, P.: A novel secure image steganography method based on chaos theory in spatial domain. Int. J. Secur. Priv. Trust. Manag. 3, 11–22 (2014). Scholar
  17. 17.
    Luo, Y., et al.: A novel chaotic image encryption algorithm based on improved baker map and logistic map. Multimed. Tools Appl. 78, 22023–22043 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tütüncü, K., Demirci, B.: Adaptive LSB steganography based on chaos theory and random distortion. Adv. Electr. Comput. Eng. 18, 15–22 (2018). Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li, C., Luo, G., Li, C.: An image encryption scheme based on the three-dimensional chaotic logistic map. Int. J. Netw. Secur. 21, 22–29 (2019)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krishnaveni, N., Periyasamy, S.: Image steganography using LSB embedding with chaos. Int. J. Pure Appl. Math. 118, 505–508 (2018)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Danforth, C.M.: Chaos in an atmosphere hanging on a wall. Mathematics of Planet Earth, April 2013Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rasras, R., Alqadi, Z., Rasmi, M., Sara, A.: A methodology based on steganography and cryptography to protect highly secure messages. Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res. 9, 3681–3684 (2019)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gupta, A., Ahuja, S.: An improved image steganography technique using block division & least significant bit approach. In: 2018 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication Control and Networking (ICACCCN), Greater Noida (UP), India, pp. 335–339 (2018)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sridhar, S., Smys, S.: A hybrid multilevel authentication scheme for private cloud environment. In: 2016 10th International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Control (ISCO), 7 January 2016, pp. 1–5. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Praveena, A., Smys, S.: Anonymization in social networks: a survey on the issues of data privacy in social network sites. J. Int. J. Eng. Comput. Sci. 5(3), 15912–15918 (2016)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dworkin, M.J.: SP 800-38A 2001 Edition. Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: Methods and Techniques. Technical report, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, United States (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shanmukha Shreyas Vedantam
    • 1
  • Kushalnath Devaruppala
    • 1
  • Ravi Shankar Nanduri
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Geethanjali College of Engineering and TechnologyHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations