When Did I Lose Them? Using Process Mining to Study User Engagement in Interactive Digital Narratives

  • Sergio EstupiñánEmail author
  • Nicolas Szilas
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11869)


This work aims at capitalizing advances in the field of Process Mining applied to the domain of Interactive Digital Narratives (IDN), towards the understanding of user engagement, particularly, spotting when and what happened when engagement dropped. An online IDN system was adapted to implement an engagement sampling protocol, probing 74 users for Continuation Desire during runtime. The playtest dataset was coupled with the engagement reports and analyzed using Process Mining. We identified a subset of User-Initiated Actions associated with higher engagement trajectories, as well as actionable feedback for improving the system. We consider Process Mining as an asset for the evaluation of IDN systems and the characterization of the Interactive Narrative Experience.


Continuation Desire Engagement Process Mining Interactive Narrative Experience User Research 


  1. 1.
    van der Aalst, W.M.P.: Process Mining. (2016).
  2. 2.
    Schoenau-Fog, H.: Hooked! – evaluating engagement as continuation desire in interactive narratives. In: Si, M., Thue, D., André, E., Lester, J.C., Tanenbaum, J., Zammitto, V. (eds.) ICIDS 2011. LNCS, vol. 7069, pp. 219–230. Springer, Heidelberg (2011). Scholar
  3. 3.
    Murray, J.H.: Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. MIT Press, Cambridge (1997)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Roth, C.: Experiencing Interactive Storytelling (2016)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Klimmt, C., Hartmann, T., Frey, A.: Effectance and control as determinants of video game enjoyment. CyberPsychol. Behav. 10, 845–848 (2007). Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arinbjarnar, M., Barber, H., Kudenko, D.: A critical review of interactive drama systems. In: AISB 2009 Symposium AI Games, pp. 15–25 (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Louchart, S., Zagalo, N.: The Challenges with Evaluating Interactive Narratives, pp. 2–3 (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Estupiñán, S., Andkjaer, K.I., Szilas, N.: Engagement in interactive digital storytelling: sampling without spoiling. In: Clua, E., Roque, L., Lugmayr, A., Tuomi, P. (eds.) ICEC 2018. LNCS, vol. 11112, pp. 248–253. Springer, Cham (2018). Scholar
  9. 9.
    Szilas, N., Ilea, I.: Objective metrics for interactive narrative. In: Mitchell, A., Fernández-Vara, C., Thue, D. (eds.) ICIDS 2014. LNCS, vol. 8832, pp. 91–102. Springer, Cham (2014). Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.TECFA, FPSEUniversity of GenevaGeneva 4Switzerland

Personalised recommendations