Advertisement

Villanelle: An Authoring Tool for Autonomous Characters in Interactive Fiction

  • Chris MartensEmail author
  • Owais Iqbal
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11869)

Abstract

Our goal is to discover tool and language design principles that enable powerful, usable autonomous character authorship for diverse audiences of storytellers. This paper describes the Villanelle project, an approach to interactive narrative authoring that supports seamless integration of autonomous characters into choice-based storytelling. We present our computational model based on behavior trees uniformly for scripting agent interaction, user interaction, and narrative events; our stand-alone authoring tool, which provides an integrated development and testing environment for authoring with this model; and our JavaScript API for web-based development, demonstrating the expressiveness and simplicity of our approach through two case studies.

References

  1. 1.
    Aylett, R.: Narrative in virtual environments - towards emergent narrative. In: Working Notes of the Narrative Intelligence Symposium (1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bryson, J.J., Stein, L.A.: Modularity and design in reactive intelligence. In: International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. vol. 17, pp. 1115–1120. LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES LTD. (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dias, J., Mascarenhas, S., Paiva, A.: FAtiMA modular: towards an agent architecture with a generic appraisal framework. In: Bosse, T., Broekens, J., Dias, J., van der Zwaan, J. (eds.) Emotion Modeling. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 8750, pp. 44–56. Springer, Cham (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12973-0_3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Evans, R., Short, E.: Versu: a simulationist storytelling system. IEEE Trans. Comput. Intell. AI Games 6(2), 113–130 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Friedhoff, J.: Untangling twine: a platform study. In: DiGRA conference (2013)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Green, D., Hargood, C., Charles, F.: Contemporary Issues in Interactive Storytelling Authoring Systems. In: Rouse, R., Koenitz, H., Haahr, M. (eds.) ICIDS 2018. LNCS, vol. 11318, pp. 501–513. Springer, Cham (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04028-4_59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Grow, A., Gaudl, S.E., Gomes, P., Mateas, M., Wardrip-Fruin, N.: A methodology for requirements analysis of AI architecture authoring tools. In: Foundations of Digital Games (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Heckel, F.W.P., Youngblood, G.M., Hale, D.H.: Behaviorshop: an intuitive interface for interactive character design. In: AIIDE (2009)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
    Kapadia, M., Zünd, F., Falk, J., Marti, M., Sumner, R.W., Gross, M.: Evaluating the authoring complexity of interactive narratives with interactive behaviour trees. Foundations of Digital Games (2015)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Klimas, C.: Twine (2009). http://www.twinery.org
  12. 12.
    Liu, R., Christopher, C., Martens, C.: Rime royale: a guildmaster simulator. In: Fifteenth Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference (Playable Experiences) (2018)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Martens, C., et al.: Villanelle: towards authorable autonomous characters in interactive narrative. In: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop on Intelligent Narrative Technologies and Workshop on Intelligent Cinematography and Editing (2018)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: A behavior language for story-based believable agents. IEEE Intell. Syst. 17(4), 39–47 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: Façade: An experiment in building a fully-realized interactive drama. In: Game Developers Conference, vol. 2, pp. 4–8 (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    McCoy, J., Treanor, M., Samuel, B., Reed, A.A., Wardrip-Fruin, N., Mateas, M.: Prom week. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, pp. 235–237. ACM (2012)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    McCoy, J., Treanor, M., Samuel, B., Tearse, B., Mateas, M., Wardrip-Fruin, N.: Authoring game-based interactive narrative using social games and comme il faut. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference & Festival of the Electronic Literature Organization: Archive & Innovate, pp. 1–8. Citeseer (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Medler, B., Magerko, B.: Scribe: a tool for authoring event driven interactive drama. In: Göbel, S., Malkewitz, R., Iurgel, I. (eds.) TIDSE 2006. LNCS, vol. 4326, pp. 139–150. Springer, Heidelberg (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1007/11944577_14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Millington, I., Funge, J.: Artificial Intelligence for Games. CRC Press, Boco Raton (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Neufeld, X., Mostaghim, S., Brand, S.: A hybrid approach to planning and execution in dynamic environments through hierarchical task networks and behavior trees. In: Fourteenth Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference (2018)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pacian, C.: Weird city interloper. The Interactive Fiction Database (2014). (https://ifdb.tads.org/viewgame?id=wrt29d4nlm71udll)
  22. 22.
    Porteous, J., Cavazza, M., Charles, F.: Applying planning to interactive storytelling: narrative control using state constraints. ACM Trans. Intell. Syst. Technol. (TIST) 1(2), 10 (2010)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Riedl, M.O., Young, R.M.: Narrative planning: balancing plot and character. J. Artif. Intell. Res. 39, 217–268 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Samuel, B., et al.: Playable experiences at AIIDE 2018. In: Fourteenth Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference (2018)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Samuel, B., Reed, A.A., Maddaloni, P., Mateas, M., Wardrip-Fruin, N.: The ensemble engine: next-generation social physics. In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games (FDG 2015), pp. 22–25 (2015)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shoulson, A., Garcia, F.M., Jones, M., Mead, R., Badler, N.I.: Parameterizing behavior trees. In: Allbeck, J.M., Faloutsos, P. (eds.) MIG 2011. LNCS, vol. 7060, pp. 144–155. Springer, Heidelberg (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-25090-3_13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smith, A.: Living worlds: the joy of NPC schedules. Rock Paper Shotgun (2016)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stefnisson, I.S., Thue, D.: Mimisbrunnur: ai-assisted authoring for interactive storytelling. In: Fourteenth Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference (2018)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Szilas, N., Marty, O., Réty, J.-H.: Authoring highly generative interactive drama. In: Balet, O., Subsol, G., Torguet, P. (eds.) ICVS 2003. LNCS, vol. 2897, pp. 37–46. Springer, Heidelberg (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-40014-1_5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Van Velsen, M.: Narratoria, an authoring suite for digital interactive narrative. In: FLAIRS Conference, pp. 394–395 (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.North Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations