A Spectrum of Audience Interactivity for Entertainment Domains

  • Alina StrinerEmail author
  • Sasha Azad
  • Chris Martens
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11869)


The concept of audience interactivity has been rediscovered across many domains of storytelling and entertainment—e.g. digital games, in-person role-playing, film, theater performance, music, and theme parks—that enrich the form with new idioms, language, and practices. In this paper, we introduce a Spectrum of Audience Interactivity that establishes a common vocabulary for the design space across entertainment domains. Our spectrum expands on an early vocabulary conceptualized through co-design sessions for interactive musical performances. We conduct a cross-disciplinary literature review to evaluate and iterate upon this vocabulary, using our findings to develop our validated spectrum.


Audience interaction Audience participation Entertainment Agency Performance interaction Immersion 



Thank you to Jessica Hammer and Theresa Tanenbaum for their generous feedback and support.


  1. 1.
    Allen, W.: The Kugelmass Episode. New Yorker, Braunschweig (1977)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson, D., Gosselin, V.: Private and public memories of expo 67: a case study of recollections of montreal’s world’s fair, 40 years after the event. Mus. Soc. 6(1), 1–21 (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andersson, D., Brigante, R.: Impressive peter pan’s flight interactive queue debuts dazzling pixie dust at Walt Disney World, January 2015.
  4. 4.
    Azad, S., Saldanha, C., Gan, C.H., Riedl, M.O.: Mixed reality meets procedural content generation in video games. In: AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment. AAAI Press (2016)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Azad, S., Saldanha, C., Gan, C.H., Riedl, M.O.: Procedural level generation for augmented reality games. In: Twelfth Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference (2016)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Azad, S., Xu, J., Yu, H., Li, B.: Scheduling live interactive narratives with mixed-integer linear programming. In: AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bartle, R.A.: Designing Virtual Worlds. New Riders, San Francisco (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bell, C.: Ritual: Perspectives and Dimensions-Revised Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1997)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Benford, S., et al.: The frame of the game: blurring the boundary between fiction and reality in mobile experiences. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 427–436. ACM (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bernardo, F.: Music video games in live performance: catachresis or an emergent approach? In: Videojogos 2014-Conferência de Ciências E Artes Dos Videojogos (2014)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boal, A.: Theater of the Oppressed. Pluto Press, London (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bradford, T.W., Sherry Jr., J.F.: Domesticating public space through ritual: tailgating as vestaval. J. Consum. Res. 42(1), 130–151 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brignull, H., Rogers, Y.: Enticing people to interact with large public displays in public spaces. In: Proceedings of INTERACT, vol. 3, pp. 17–24 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brock, T.C., Livingston, S.D.: The need for entertainment scale. In: The Psychology of Entertainment Media, pp. 259–278. Erlbaum Psych Press (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brockmyer, J.H., Fox, C.M., Curtiss, K.A., McBroom, E., Burkhart, K.M., Pidruzny, J.N.: The development of the game engagement questionnaire: a measure of engagement in video game-playing. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 45(4), 624–634 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brooker, W.: Conclusion: overflow and audience. In: Brooker, W., Jermyn, D. (eds.) The Audience Studies Reader. Routledge (2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bukatman, S.: There’s always Tomorrowland: Disney and the hypercinematic experience. October 57, 55–78 (1991)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Burn, A.: Potter-literacy: from book to game and back again; literature, film, game and cross-media literacy. Pap. Explor. Child. Lit. 14(2), 5–17 (2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cavazza, M., Charles, F., Mead, S.J.: Character-based interactive storytelling. IEEE Intell. Syst. 17(4), 17–24 (2002)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cavazza, M., Lugrin, J.L., Pizzi, D., Charles, F.: Madame bovary on the holodeck: immersive interactive storytelling. In: Proceedings of the 15th ACM International Conference on Multimedia, pp. 651–660. ACM (2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cordova, D.I., Lepper, M.R.: Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning: beneficial effects of contextualization, personalization, and choice. J. Educ. Psychol. 88(4), 715 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cover, R., et al.: Interactivity: reconceiving the audience in the struggle for textual ‘control’ of narrative and distribution. Aust. J. Commun. 31(1), 107 (2004)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Coverage, B.S.: In her own words: Sarah horn shares inspirational story of singing with Kristin Chenoweth at the hollywood bowl and going viral! August 2013.
  24. 24.
    Cross, G., Walton, J.K.: The Playful Crowd: Pleasure Places in the Twentieth Century. Columbia University Press, New York (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Csikszentmihalyi, M.: Flow: the psychology of optimal performance (1990)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cummings, J.J., Bailenson, J.N.: How immersive is enough? A meta-analysis of the effect of immersive technology on user presence. Med. Psychol. 19(2), 272–309 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    DeMartino, N.: Why transmedia is catching on (part 1). Accessed 2011Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Druin, A.: Cooperative inquiry: developing new technologies for children with children. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 592–599. ACM (1999)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Durrant, A., Kirk, D.S., Benford, S., Rodden, T.: Pursuing leisure: reflections on theme park visiting. Comput. Support. Coop. Work (CSCW) 21(1), 43–79 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Eicher, J.B.: Influence of changing resources on clothing-textiles and quality of life. In: Combined Proceedings, Easter, Central, and Western Regional Meetings of Association of College Professors of Textiles and Clothing. Association of College Professors of Textiles and Clothing (1981)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Engeser, S., Rheinberg, F.: Flow, performance and moderators of challenge-skill balance. Motiv. Emot. 32(3), 158–172 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ermi, L., Mäyrä, F.: Fundamental components of the gameplay experience: analysing immersion. Worlds Play Int. Perspect. Digit. Games Res. 37(2), 37–53 (2005)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Everett, R.: Communication technology: the new media in society (1986)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Farbood, M.M., Pasztor, E., Jennings, K.: Hyperscore: a graphical sketchpad for novice composers. IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 24(1), 50–54 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fechtmann, T.J.V.: The best queues in Walt Disney World (2015).
  36. 36.
    Fine, G.A.: Shared Fantasy: Role Playing Games as Social Worlds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (2002)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Forlizzi, J., Battarbee, K.: Understanding experience in interactive systems. In: Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, and Techniques, DIS 2004, pp. 261–268. ACM, New York (2004).
  38. 38.
    Freeman, J.: Extreme sight-reading, mediated expression, and audience participation: Real-time music notation in live performance. Comput. Music J. 32(3), 25–41 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fron, J., Fullerton, T., Morie, J.F., Pearce, C.: Playing dress-up: costumes, roleplay and imagination. Philos. Comput. Games, 24–27 (2007)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gahr, S.: The art of dance, February 2017.
  41. 41.
    Garris, R., Ahlers, R., Driskell, J.E.: Games, motivation, and learning: a research and practice model. Simul. Gaming 33(4), 441–467 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gilbert, L., Moore, D.R.: Building interactivity into web courses: tools for social and instructional interaction. Educ. Technol. 38(3), 29–35 (1998)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gilroy, S., Porteous, J., Charles, F., Cavazza, M.: Exploring passive user interaction for adaptive narratives. In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, pp. 119–128. ACM (2012)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Giovagnoli, M.: Transmedia Storytelling: Imagery, Shapes and Techniques. Etc Press (2011)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goertz, L.: Wie interaktiv sind Medien? na (1995)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Goffman, E.: Interaction Ritual: Essays in Face to Face Behavior. Aldine Transaction, Piscataway (2005)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goldman, A.: Predicting and motivating achievement in self-paced learning: a formative design, study and evaluation. Ph.D. thesis, University of Maryland, College Park (2014)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Green, M.C., Brock, T.C., Kaufman, G.F.: Understanding media enjoyment: the role of transportation into narrative worlds. Commun. Theor. 14(4), 311–327 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Green, M.C., Garst, J., Brock, T.C.: The power of fiction: determinants and boundaries. Psychol. Entertainment Media Blurring Lines Between Entertainment Persuasion, 161–176 (2004)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Guha, M.L., Druin, A., Fails, J.A.: Cooperative inquiry revisited: reflections of the past and guidelines for the future of intergenerational co-design. Int. J. Child-Comput. Interac. 1(1), 14–23 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gupta, R., Shah, P., George, L., Pramer, E.: Harry Pottar.
  52. 52.
    Hoffman, E., Slotnick, S.: Design for the 21st century: media lab style. Des. Manag. Rev. 26(1), 32–39 (2015)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ito, M.: Intertextual enterprises: writing alternative places and meanings in the media mixed networks of Yugioh. ET Cult. Anthropol. Outerspaces, 180–199 (2005)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jacob, M., Magerko, B.: Viewpoints AI. In: Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Creativity and Cognition, pp. 361–362. ACM (2015)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jensen, J.F.: Interactivity: tracking a new concept in media and communication studies. Nordicom Rev. 12(1) (1998)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kershaw, B.: Oh for unruly audiences! Or, patterns of participation. In: Twentieth-century Theatre. Modern Drama XLIV.2, pp. 133–154 (2001)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Khut, G.P.: Interactive art as embodied inquiry: working with audience experience. In: Engage: Interaction, Art and Audience Experience (2007)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kiili, K., Lainema, T., de Freitas, S., Arnab, S.: Flow framework for analyzing the quality of educational games. Entertainment Comput. 5(4), 367–377 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kronzek, A.Z., Kronzek, E.: The Sorcerer’s Companion: A Guide to the Magical World of Harry Potter. Broadway (2010)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lancaster, K.: When spectators become performers: contemporary performance-entertainments meet the needs of an "unsettled" audience. J. Popular Cult. 30(4), 75–88 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Laurel, B.: Interface as mimesis, In: Norman, D.A., Draper, S.W. (eds.) User Centred System Design: New Perspectives on Human-computer Interaction (1986)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Laurel, B.: Computers as Theatre. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1991)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Laurel, B.: Interface agents: metaphors with character. In: Human Values and the Design of Computer Technology, pp. 207–219 (1997)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lindley, C.: The semiotics of time structure in ludic space as a foundation for analysis and design. Game Stud. 5(1), 2005 (2005)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Long, D., McKlin, T., Weisling, A., Martin, W., Guthrie, H., Magerko, B.: Trajectories of physical engagement and expression in a co-creative museum installation. In: Proceedings of the 2019 on Creativity and Cognition, pp. 246–257. ACM (2019)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lv, Z., Halawani, A., Feng, S., Ur Réhman, S., Li, H.: Touch-less interactive augmented reality game on vision-based wearable device. Pers. Ubiquit. Comput. 19(3–4), 551–567 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Machado, I., Martinho, C., Paiva, A.: Once upon a time. In: Published in Fall Symposium on Narrative Intelligence of AAAI (1999)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Marshall, M., Fiore, Q., Agel, J.: The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects (1967)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: Façade: an experiment in building a fully-realized interactive drama. In: Game Developers Conference, vol. 2 (2003)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: Interaction and narrative. Game Des. Reader Rules Play Anthol. 1, 642–669 (2006)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    McAllister, G., Alcorn, M., Strain, P.: Interactive performance with wireless PDAs. In: International Computer Music Conference (2004)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    McCool, S.F., Moisey, R.N., Nickerson, N.P.: What should tourism sustain? The disconnect with industry perceptions of useful indicators. J. Travel Res. 40(2), 124–131 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    McDuff, D., El Kaliouby, R., Picard, R.W.: Crowdsourcing facial responses to online videos. In: 2015 International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII), pp. 512–518. IEEE (2015)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    McMahan, A.: Immersion, engagement and presence. Video Game Theor. Reader 67, 86 (2003)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    McMillan, S.J.: A four-part model of cyber-interactivity: some cyber-places are more interactive than others. New Media Soc. 4(2), 271–291 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Medianet: Teambuilding through improvisation.
  77. 77.
    Michelis, D., Müller, J.: The audience funnel: observations of gesture based interaction with multiple large displays in a city center. Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Interac. 27(6), 562–579 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Miller, J.H., Lentricchia, F., McLaughlin, T.: Critical Terms for Literary Study. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1990)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Milman, A.: 13 theme park tourism and management strategy. In: Tourism Management: Analysis, Behaviour, and Strategy, p. 218 (2007)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Monson, I.T.: Forced migration, asymmetrical power relations and african-american music: reformulation of cultural meaning and musical form. World Music 32(3), 22–47 (1990)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Murray, J.H.: Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. MIT Press, Cambridge (2017)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nelson, T.J.: Sacrifice of praise: emotion and collective participation in an African-American worship service. Sociol. Relig. 57(4), 379–396 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nettl, B., Russell, M.: In the Course of Performance: Studies in the World of Musical Improvisation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1998)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    O’Neill, B., Piplica, A., Fuller, D., Magerko, B.: A knowledge-based framework for the collaborative improvisation of scene introductions. In: Si, M., Thue, D., André, E., Lester, J.C., Tanenbaum, J., Zammitto, V. (eds.) ICIDS 2011. LNCS, vol. 7069, pp. 85–96. Springer, Heidelberg (2011). Scholar
  85. 85.
    Palmer, C.T., Coe, K.: Parenting, courtship, disneyland and the human brain. Int. J. Tourism Anthropol. 1(1), 1–14 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pavlik, J.V., Bridges, F.: The emergence of Augmented Reality (AR) as a storytelling medium in journalism. Journalism Commun. Monogr. 15(1), 4–59 (2013) Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Peltonen, P., et al.: It’s mine, don’t touch! Interactions at a large multi-touch display in a city centre. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1285–1294. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pohjola, M.: Autonomous Identities: Immersion as a Tool for Exploring. Empowering and (2004)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pointer, M.: Charles Dickens on the Screen: The Film, Television, and Video Adaptations. Scarecrow Press, Lanham (1996)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rafaeli, S.: From new media to communication. Sage Annu. Rev. Commun. Res. Advancing Commun. Sci. 16, 110–134 (1988)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rand, A.: The Night of January 16th. Penguin, London (1971)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Reeves, S., Benford, S., O’Malley, C., Fraser, M.: Designing the spectator experience. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 741–750. ACM (2005)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rickman, B.: The Dr. k-project. In: Advances in Consciousness Research, vol. 46, pp. 131–142 (2002)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Salen, K., Zimmerman, E.: Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals. MIT Press, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Schell, J., Shochet, J.: Designing interactive theme park rides lessons learned creating Disney’s Pirates of the Caribbean-Battle for the Buccaneer Gold. In: Proceedings of the 2001 Game Developers Conference, pp. 723–731 (2001)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Schmitt, N.C.: Casting the audience. TDR (1988-) 37(4), 143–156 (1993)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Shaker, N., Yannakakis, G.N., Togelius, J.: Towards automatic personalized content generation for platform games. In: AIIDE (2010)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Shani, A., Pizam, A.: The role of animal-based attractions in ecological sustainability: current issues and controversies. Worldwide Hospitality Tourism Themes 2(3), 281–298 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Shernoff, D.J., Csikszentmihalyi, M.: Cultivating engaged learners and optimal learning environments. In: Handbook of Positive Psychology in Schools, pp. 131–145 (2009)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Shipman III, F.M.: Blending the real and virtual: activity and spectatorship in fantasy sports. In: Proceedings from DAC 2001: The Conference on Digital Arts and Culture (2001)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Shneiderman, B.: Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. Pearson Education India, Bengaluru (2010)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Simkins, D.: The Arts of Larp: Design, Literacy, Learning and Community in Live-action Role Play. McFarland, Jefferson (2015)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sit, J.K., Birch, D.: Entertainment events in shopping malls–profiling passive and active participation behaviors. J. Consum. Behav. 13(6), 383–392 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Smuts, A.: Are video games art? Contemp. Aesthetics 3, 6 (2005)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Squinkifer, D.: Coffee! A misunderstanding (2014).
  106. 106.
    Stapleton, C.B., Hughes, C.E.: Mixed reality and experiential movie trailers: combining emotions and immersion to innovate entertainment marketing. In: Proceedings of 2005 International Conference on Human-Computer Interface Advances in Modeling and Simulation (SIMCHI 2005), pp. 23–27. Citeseer (2005)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Steuer, J.: Defining virtual reality: dimensions determining telepresence. J. Commun. 42(4), 73–93 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Striner, A., McNally, B.: Transitioning between audience and performer: co-designing interactive music performances with children. In: Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI EA 2017, pp. 2115–2122. ACM, New York (2017).
  109. 109.
    Strutner, S.: This guy quit his job to play piano around the world in a beautifully unplugged life, July 2015.
  110. 110.
    Summerville, A., Guzdial, M., Mateas, M., Riedl, M.: Learning player tailored content from observation: platformer level generation from video traces using LSTMs. In: AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (2016)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sylvester, T.: Designing Games: A Guide to Engineering Experiences. O’Reilly Media, Inc., Newton (2013)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Taylor, T.L., Witkowski, E.: This is how we play it: what a mega-LAN can teach us about games. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, FDG 2010, pp. 195–202. ACM, New York (2010).
  113. 113.
    Togelius, J., Yannakakis, G.N., Stanley, K.O., Browne, C.: Search-based procedural content generation: a taxonomy and survey. IEEE Trans. Comput. Intell. AI Games 3(3), 172–186 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Toups, Z.O., Hammer, J., Hamilton, W.A., Jarrah, A., Graves, W., Garretson, O.: A framework for cooperative communication game mechanics from grounded theory. In: Proceedings of the First ACM SIGCHI Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, pp. 257–266. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    van Troyer, A.: Constellation: a tool for creative dialog between audience and composer. In: 10th International Symposium on Computer Music Multidisciplinary Research (2013)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    van Troyer, A.: Enhancing site-specific theatre experience with remote partners in sleep no more. In: Proceedings of the 2013 ACM International Workshop on Immersive Media Experiences, ImmersiveMe 2013, pp. 17–20. ACM, New York (2013).
  117. 117.
    Unger, P., Forsberg, K., Jacobsen, J.H.: Photovote: olympic judging system. In: Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2004, pp. 1670–1674. ACM, New York (2004).
  118. 118.
    Van Maanen, J., Frost, P., Moore, P., Lundberg, C., Louis, M., Martin, J.: The smile factory. In: Sociology: Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life Readings. Pine Forge Press, Newbury Park (1991)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Vermeulen, I.E., Roth, C., Vorderer, P., Klimmt, C.: Measuring user responses to interactive stories: towards a standardized assessment tool. In: Aylett, R., Lim, M.Y., Louchart, S., Petta, P., Riedl, M. (eds.) ICIDS 2010. LNCS, vol. 6432, pp. 38–43. Springer, Heidelberg (2010). Scholar
  120. 120.
    Vorderer, P., Knobloch, S., Schramm, H.: Does entertainment suffer from interactivity? The impact of watching an interactive tv movie on viewers’ experience of entertainment. Media Psychol. 3(4), 343–363 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wardrip-Fruin, N., Harrigan, P.: First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game. MIT Press, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Whitacre, E.: A virtual choir 2,000 voices strong.
  123. 123.
    Winkler, T.: Composing Interactive Music: Techniques and Ideas Using Max. MIT Press, Cambridge (2001)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Yee, N.: Facets: 5 motivation factors for why people play MMORPG’s. Terra Incognita 1, 1708–1723 (2002)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Zeltzer, D.: Autonomy, interaction, and presence. Presence Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 1(1), 127–132 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Zimmerman, E.: Narrative, interactivity, play, and games: four naughty concepts in need of discipline (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica (CWI)AmsterdamNetherlands
  2. 2.North Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations