Design and Development of an Automatic Blood Detection System for Capsule Endoscopy Images
Wireless Capsule Endoscopy is a technique that allows for observation of the entire gastrointestinal tract in an easy and non-invasive way. However, its greatest limitation lies in the time required to analyze the large number of images generated in each examination for diagnosis, which is about 2 h. This causes not only a high cost, but also a high probability of a wrong diagnosis due to the physician’s fatigue, while the variable appearance of abnormalities requires continuous concentration. In this work, we designed and developed a system capable of automatically detecting blood based on classification of extracted regions, following two different classification approaches. The first method consisted in extraction of hand-crafted features that were used to train machine learning algorithms, specifically Support Vector Machines and Random Forest, to create models for classifying images as healthy tissue or blood. The second method consisted in applying deep learning techniques, concretely convolutional neural networks, capable of extracting the relevant features of the image by themselves. The best results (95.7% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity) were obtained for a Random Forest model trained with features extracted from the histograms of the three HSV color space channels. For both methods we extracted square patches of several sizes using a sliding window, while for the first approach we also implemented the waterpixels technique in order to improve the classification results.
KeywordsWireless capsule endoscopy Blood detection Machine learning Hand-crafted features Deep learning Convolutional neural networks
This work was funded by the European Union’s H2020: MSCA: ITN program for the “Wireless In-body Environment Communication - WiBEC” project under the grant agreement no. 675353. Additionally, we gratefully acknowledge the support of NVIDIA Corporation with the donation of the Titan V GPU used for this research.
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