The Role of Country of Origin in Foreign Retailers’ Strategies

  • Giovanna Pegan
  • Donata Vianelli
  • Patrizia de Luca
Part of the International Series in Advanced Management Studies book series (ISAMS)


The success of companies in foreign markets depends not only on how they enter and manage international distribution channels but also on their ability to influence the choices of retailers that include products from domestic and foreign companies in their assortments. The role of retailers, in fact, is fundamental because they constitute the link with final consumers and can decide whether to place products in their portfolios. An empirical analysis was carried out in the US market. The main aim of the analysis reported in this chapter was to investigate the influences of the COO on retailers’ choices to determine the product portfolios in their stores. In addition, a comparison was made among three countries of origin: made in Italy, made in China, and made in USA. The relationship between attention to the COO and the store experience was also investigated. Finally, this study focused on the impacts of the COO in connection with the Italian-sounding phenomena to understand how US retailers deal with the alternative between a real COO and a COO based on the foreign-sounding brand.


  1. Aboulnasr, K. (2006). Country of origin effects: The role of information diagnosticity, information typicality and involvement. Marketing Management Journal, 16(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed, Z. U., Johnson, J. P., Yang, X., Fatt, C. K., Teng, H. S., & Boon, L. C. (2004). Does country of origin matter for low-involvement products? International Marketing Review, 21(1), 102–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alon, I., Jaffe, E., Prange, C., & Vianelli, D. (2016). Global marketing. Contemporary theory, practice, and cases. New York: McGraw-Hill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold, E. J., & Wallendorf, M. (1994). Market-orientated ethnography: Interpretation building and marketing strategy formulation. Journal of Marketing Research, 31(November), 484–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker, J., Parasuraman, A., Grewal, D., & Voss, G. B. (2002). The influence of multiple store environment cues on perceived merchandise value and patronage intentions. Journal of Marketing, 66(2), 120–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balabanis, G., & Diamantopoulos, A. (2011). Gains and losses from the misperception of brand origin: The role of brand strength and country-of-origin image. Journal of International Marketing, 19(2), 95–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berman, B. R., Evans, J. R., & Chatterjee, P. M. (2017). Retail management: A strategic approach. Harlow, Essex, UK: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  8. Brodowsky, G. H. (1998). The effects of country of design and country of assembly on beliefs about automobiles and attitudes toward buying them: A comparison between low and high ethnocentric consumers. Journal of International Consumer Evaluative Marketing, 10(3), 85–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caldwell, M., Blackwell, K., & Tulloch, K. (2006). Cosmopolitanism as a consumer orientation: Replicating and extending prior research. Qualitative Market Research, 9(2), 126–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cannon, H. M., & Yaprak, A. (2002). Will the real-world citizen please stand up! Many facets of cosmopolitan consumer behavior. Journal of International Marketing, 10(4), 30–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen, Y.-M., Su, Y.-F., & Lin, F.-J. (2011). Country-of-origin effects and antecedents of industrial brand equity. Journal of Business Research, 64(11), 1234–1238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Vellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and applications (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Hamzaoui, L., & Merunka, D. (2006). The impact of country of design and country of manufacture on consumer perceptions of bi-national products’ quality: An empirical model based on the concept of fit. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23(3), 145–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hamzaoui-Essoussi, L., Merunka, D., & Bartikowski, B. (2011). Brand origin and country of manufacture influences on brand equity and the moderating role of brand typicality. Journal of Business Research, 64(9), 973–978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Han, C. M. (1988). The role of consumer patriotism in the choice of domestic versus foreign products. Journal of Advertising Research, 28(3), 25–31.Google Scholar
  16. Han, C. M. (1989). Country image: Halo or summary construct? Journal of Marketing Research, 26(May), 222–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hannerz, U. (1990). Cosmopolitans and locals in world culture. Theory, Culture and Society, 7(2), 237–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hong, S., & Wyer, R. (1989). Effects of country-of-origin and product-attribute information on product evaluation: An information pro-cessing perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(2), 175–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ishii, K. (2009). Nationalistic sentiments of Chinese consumers: The effects and determinants of animosity and consumer ethnocentrism. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 21(4), 299–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jöreskog, K., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Chicago: Scientific Software.Google Scholar
  21. Keillor, B. D., Hult, T. M., Erffmeyer, R. C., & Barbakus, E. (1996). NATID: The development and application of a National Identity Measure for use in international marketing. Journal of International Marketing, 4(2), 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Klein, J. G., Ettenson, R., & Morris, M. (1998). The animosity model of foreign product purchase: An empirical test in the people’s Republic of China. Journal of Marketing., 62(1), 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Levy, M., Weitz, B. A., & Grewal, D. (2019). Retailing management. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.Google Scholar
  24. Loken, B., & Ward, J. C. (1990). Alternative approaches to understanding the determinants of typicality. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(2), 111–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Magnusson, P., Westjohn, S. A., & Zdravkovic, S. (2011). Further clarification on how perceived brand origin affects brand attitude: A reply to Samiee and Usunier. International Marketing Review, 28(5), 497–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Martin, I. M., & Eroglu, S. (1993). Measuring a multi–dimensional construct: Country image. Journal of Business Reviews, 28(3), 191–210.Google Scholar
  27. Nagashima, A. (1970). A comparison of Japanese and U.S. attitudes toward foreign products. Journal of Marketing, 34(1), 68–74.Google Scholar
  28. Olson, J., & Jacoby, J. (1972). Cue utilization in the quality perception process. In Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the Association for Consumer Research (pp. 167–179). Chicago, IL: Association for Consumer Research.Google Scholar
  29. Papadopoulos, N., & Heslop, L. (1993). Product-country image: Impact and role in international marketing. London: International Business Press.Google Scholar
  30. Pappu, R., Quester, P. G., & Cooksey, R. W. (2007). Country image and consumer-based brand equity: Relationships and implications for international marketing. Journal of International Business Studies, 38, 726–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Reardon, J., Miller, C., & Coe, B. (2011). Applied scale development: Measurement of store image. Applied Business Research, 11(4), 85–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Reardon, J., Vianelli, D., & Miller, C. (2017). The effect of COO on retail buyers’ propensity to trial new product. International Marketing Review, 34(2), 311–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Riefler, P., & Diamantopoulos, A. (2009). Consumer Cosmopolitanism: Review and replication of the CYMYC scale. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), 407–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shankar, V., Inman, J. J., Mantrala, M., Kelley, E., & Rizley, R. (2011). Innovations in shopper marketing: Current insights and future research issues. Journal of Retailing, 87, 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shimp, T. A. (1984). Consumer ethnocentrism: The concept and a preliminary empirical test. In T. C. Kinnear (Ed.), Advances in consumer research (Vol. 11, pp. 285–290). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.Google Scholar
  36. Shrimp, T. A., & Sharma, S. (1987). Consumer ethnocentrism: Construction and validation of the CETSCALE. Journal of Marketing Research, 24(August), 280–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Skrbis, Z., Gavin, K., & Woodward, I. (2004). Locating cosmopolitanism between humanist ideal and grounded social category. Theory, Culture & Society, 21(6), 115–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Suh, T., & Kwon, I. G. (2002). Globalization and reluctant buyers. International Marketing Review, 19(6), 663–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Thakor, M. V., & Lavack, A. (2003). Effect of perceived brand origin associations on consumer perception of quality. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 12(6), 394–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Thelen, S. T., & Honeycutt, E. D., Jr. (2004). Assessing National Identity in Russia between generations using the National Identity Scale. Journal of International Marketing, 12(2), 58–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Thompson, C. J., & Tambyah S. K. (1999). Trying to be cosmopolitan. Journal of Consumer Research, 26(3), 214–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Titus, P. A., & Everett, P. B. (1995). The consumer retail search process: A conceptual model and research agenda. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23(2), 106–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ulgado, F. (2002). Country of origin effects on E-commerce. Journal of American Academy of Business, 2(1), 250–253.Google Scholar
  44. Vianelli, D., Gregori, M., & Valta, M. (2017). The mediating effect of store image and consumer attention to COO on the relationship of COO and retailers’ intention to buy. Marketing di successo. Imprese, enti e persone (pp. 1–6). ISBN:978–88–907662-9-9.Google Scholar
  45. Yi, Y., & Gray, K. C. (1996). Revisiting attribute diagnosticity in the context of product typicality. Psychology and Marketing, 13, 605–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yoon, S.-J., Cannon, H. M., & Yaprak, A. (1996). Evaluating the CYMYC cosmopolitanism scale on Korean consumers. Advances in International Marketing, 2, 211–232.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanna Pegan
    • 1
  • Donata Vianelli
    • 1
  • Patrizia de Luca
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Economics, Business, Mathematics and StatisticsUniversity of TriesteTriesteItaly

Personalised recommendations