Drought Forecasting Using Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) and Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT)-GPR in Gua Musang

  • Muhammad Akram Shaari
  • Ruhaidah SamsudinEmail author
  • Ani Shabri Ilman
  • Abdulsamad E. Yahya
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1073)


Drought forecasting is important in preparing for drought and its mitigation plan. This study focuses on the investigating the performance of Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) and Empirical Wavelet Transform-Gaussian Process Regression (EWT-GPR) in forecasting drought using Standard Precipitation Index (SPI). Daily rainfall data from Gua Musang, Kelantan from 1975 to 2008 was used in this study. SPI data of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were then calculated using the rainfall data. EWT was employed to decompose the time series into several finite modes. EWT was used to create Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) which are used to create ARIMA models. The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the proposed method against GPR model in the accuracy of forecasting drought in Arau, Malaysia. It was found that the proposed model performed better compared to GPR model in all SPI studied.


Forecasting Drought Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT) 



The authors would like to express their deepest gratitude to Research Management Center (RMC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) and Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) for their financial support under Grant Vot 4F875.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Akram Shaari
    • 1
  • Ruhaidah Samsudin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ani Shabri Ilman
    • 2
  • Abdulsamad E. Yahya
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Computing, Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Mathematics, Faculty of ScienceUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia
  3. 3.Northern Border UniversityArarKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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