• Shan-Ho Chou
  • Nicolas Guiliani
  • Vincent T. Lee
  • Ute RömlingEmail author
  • Lotte Søgaard-Andersen


The universal impact of cyclic di-nucleotide second messengers, with the most prominent example of cyclic di-GMP, on microbial physiology and behavior has been demonstrated in a multitude of studies performed in microorganisms from the phylogenetic tree throughout. Here we address some of the still open fundamental questions in this vast research field.


Biofilm formation Cyclic di-GMP Life style Motility Turnover enzymes 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shan-Ho Chou
    • 1
    • 6
  • Nicolas Guiliani
    • 2
  • Vincent T. Lee
    • 3
  • Ute Römling
    • 4
    Email author
  • Lotte Søgaard-Andersen
    • 5
  1. 1.Institute of Biochemistry and Agricultural Biotechnology CenterNational Chung Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Faculty of SciencesUniversidad de ChileSantiagoChile
  3. 3.Department of Cell Biology and Molecular GeneticsUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell BiologyKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  5. 5.Department of EcophysiologyMax Planck Institute for Terrestrial MicrobiologyMarburgGermany
  6. 6.State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Life Science and TechnologyHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations