Cyclic di-GMP Regulation of Gene Expression

  • Meng-Lun Hsieh
  • Deborah M. HintonEmail author
  • Christopher M. WatersEmail author


Cyclic di-GMP is a nearly ubiquitous bacterial second messenger signaling molecule that links changes in environmental cues to the regulation of a myriad of phenotypes including but not limited to biofilm formation, motility, virulence, and DNA repair. A complex network of cyclic di-GMP synthesis and degradation enzymes is present in many bacteria, each of which is hypothesized to respond to a different signal that is integrated into changes in cyclic di-GMP levels. Cyclic di-GMP regulates downstream phenotypes via a variety of different mechanisms including control of transcription initiation via direct interaction with transcription factors, binding to RNA riboswitches to control gene expression post-transcriptionally, or direct interaction with enzymes or protein complexes to allosterically regulate their activity. In this chapter, we will review what is known about cyclic di-GMP regulation of gene expression, both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally, focusing on transcription factors and riboswitches that directly bind to cyclic di-GMP.


Cyclic di-GMP Transcription Transcription factor Riboswitch 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Gene Expression and Regulation Section, Laboratory of Cell and Molecular BiologyNational Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology and Molecular GeneticsMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

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