Epidemiology and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Food Allergy

  • Jialing Jiang
  • Christopher M. Warren
  • Ruchi S. GuptaEmail author


Food allergy is a serious, potentially life-threatening health condition that can substantially impact quality of life, incur large economic costs, and has been increasing in prevalence worldwide. Estimated pediatric prevalence rates vary drastically by country and range from <1% to over 10%. In the United States, food allergy affects nearly 8% of children, comparable to other countries such as the United Kingdom and Australia. Among children with food allergy in the United States, approximately 40% are reported to have experienced a severe reaction with a similar proportion reporting emergency department visits for food allergy treatment in their lifetime. Additionally, it is suggested that racial differences in food allergy outcomes may exist. Black and Asian children have been reported to be more likely to develop a food allergy. Therefore, this chapter summarizes current literature on pediatric food allergy prevalence and trends as well as observes racial differences in food allergy.


Food allergy Epidemiology Prevalence Severity Tolerance Racial differences Economic 


  1. 1.
    Bock SA, Muñoz-Furlong A, Sampson HA. Further fatalities caused by anaphylactic reactions to food, 2001–2006. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Apr;119(4):1016–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hill DA, Spergel JM. The atopic march: critical evidence and clinical relevance. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2018 Feb;120(2):131–7. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gupta R, Holdford D, Bilaver L, Dyer A, Holl JL, Meltzer D. The economic impact of childhood food allergy in the United States. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Nov;167(11):1026–31. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Warren CM, Otto AK, Walkner MM, Gupta RS. Quality of life among food allergic patients and their caregivers. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2016 May;16(5):38. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Loh W, Tang MLK. The epidemiology of food allergy in the global context. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Sep 18;15(9):2043. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tang ML, Mullins RJ. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing? Intern Med J. 2017 Mar;47(3):256–61. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leung ASY, Wong GWK, Tang MLK. Food allergy in the developing world. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jan;141(1):76–78.e1. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goossens NJ, Flokstra-de Blok BM, van der Meulen GN, Arnlind MH, Asero R, Barreales L, et al. Health-related quality of life in food-allergic adults from eight European countries. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014 Jul;113(1):63–68.e1. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mahdavinia M, Fox SR, Smith BM, James C, Palmisano EL, Mohammed A, et al. Racial differences in food allergy phenotype and health care utilization among US children. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017 Mar–Apr;5(2):352–357.e1. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kumar R, Tsai HJ, Hong X, Liu X, Wang G, Pearson C, et al. Race, ancestry, and development of food-allergen sensitization in early childhood. Pediatrics. 2011 Oct;128(4):e821–9. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sicherer SH, Sampson HA. Food allergy: a review and update on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and management. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jan;141(1):41–58. Scholar
  12. 12.
    McGowan EC, Bloomberg GR, Gergen PJ, Visness CM, Jaffee KF, Sandel M, et al. Influence of early-life exposures on food sensitization and food allergy in an inner-city birth cohort. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Jan;135(1):171–8. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gupta RS, Warren CM, Smith BM, Jiang J, Blumenstock JA, Davis MM, et al. Prevalence and severity of food allergies among US adults. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Jan 4;2(1):e185630. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jackson KD, Howie LD, Akinbami LJ. Trends in allergic conditions among children: United States, 1997–2011. NCHS Data Brief. 2013 May;121:1–8.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Keet CA, Savage JH, Seopaul S, Peng RD, Wood RA, Matsui EC. Temporal trends and racial/ethnic disparity in self-reported pediatric food allergy in the United States. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014 Mar;112(3):222–229.e3. Scholar
  16. 16.
    McGowan EC, Keet CA. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Nov;132(5):1216–1219.e5. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gupta RS, Warren CM, Smith BM, Blumenstock JA, Jiang J, Davis MM, Nadeau KC. The Public Health Impact of Parent-Reported Childhood Food Allergies in the United States. Pediatrics. 2018 Dec;142(6):e20181235. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sicherer SH, Muñoz-Furlong A, Godbold JH, Sampson HA. US prevalence of self-reported peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy: 11-year follow-up. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Jun;125(6):1322–6. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Osborne NJ, Koplin JJ, Martin PE, Gurrin LC, Lowe AJ, Matheson MC, et al. HealthNuts Investigators. Prevalence of challenge-proven IgE-mediated food allergy using population-based sampling and predetermined challenge criteria in infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Mar;127(3):668–76.e1–2. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peters RL, Koplin JJ, Gurrin LC, Dharmage SC, Wake M, Ponsonby AL, et al. HealthNuts Study. The prevalence of food allergy and other allergic diseases in early childhood in a population-based study: HealthNuts age 4-year follow-up. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 Jul;140(1):145–153.e8. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nwaru BI, Hickstein L, Panesar SS, Muraro A, Werfel T, Cardona V, et al. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines Group. The epidemiology of food allergy in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Allergy. 2014 Jan;69(1):62–75. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Perkin MR, Logan K, Tseng A, Raji B, Ayis S, Peacock J, et al. EAT Study Team. Randomized trial of introduction of allergenic foods in breast-fed infants. N Engl J Med. 2016 May 5;374(18):1733–43. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Steinke M, Fiocchi A, Kirchlechner V, Ballmer-Weber B, Brockow K, Hischenhuber C, et al. REDALL study consortium. Perceived food allergy in children in 10 European nations. A randomised telephone survey. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007;143(4):290–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pyrhönen K, Hiltunen L, Kaila M, Näyhä S, Läärä E. Heredity of food allergies in an unselected child population: an epidemiological survey from Finland. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011 Feb;22(1 Pt 2):e124–32. Scholar
  25. 25.
    Caffarelli C, Coscia A, Ridolo E, Povesi Dascola C, Gelmett C, Raggi V, et al. Parents’ estimate of food allergy prevalence and management in Italian school-aged children. Pediatr Int. 2011 Aug;53(4):505–10. Scholar
  26. 26.
    Xepapadaki P, Fiocchi A, Grabenhenrich L, Roberts G, Grimshaw KE, Fiandor A, et al. Incidence and natural history of hen’s egg allergy in the first 2 years of life-the EuroPrevall birth cohort study. Allergy. 2016 Mar;71(3):350–7. Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schoemaker AA, Sprikkelman AB, Grimshaw KE, Roberts G, Roberts G, Grabenhenrich L, et al. Incidence and natural history of challenge-proven cow’s milk allergy in European children – EuroPrevall birth cohort. Allergy. 2015 Aug;70(8):963–72. Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lee AJ, Thalayasingam M, Lee BW. Food allergy in Asia: how does it compare? Asia Pac Allergy. 2013 Jan;3(1):3–14. Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mahesh PA, Wong GW, Ogorodova L, Potts J, Leung TF, Fedorova O, et al. Prevalence of food sensitization and probable food allergy among adults in India: the EuroPrevall INCO study. Allergy. 2016 Jul;71(7):1010–9. Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hu Y, Chen J, Li H. Comparison of food allergy prevalence among Chinese infants in Chongqing, 2009 versus 1999. Pediatr Int. 2010 Oct;52(5):820–4. Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim J, Chang E, Han Y, Ahn K, Lee SI. The incidence and risk factors of immediate type food allergy during the first year of life in Korean infants: a birth cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011 Nov;22(7):715–9. Scholar
  32. 32.
    Noda R. Prevalence of food allergy in nursery school (nationwide survey). Jpn J Food Allergy. 2010;10:5–9.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lee AJ, Shek LP. Food allergy in Singapore: opening a new chapter. Singapore Med J. 2014 May;55(5):244–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kung SJ, Steenhoff AP, Gray C. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality? Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2014 Jun;46(3):241–9. Scholar
  35. 35.
    Basera W, Botha M, Gray CL, Lunjani N, Watkins AS, Venter C, et al. The South African food sensitisation and food allergy population-based study of IgE-mediated food allergy: validity, safety, and acceptability. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015 Aug;115(2):113–9. Scholar
  36. 36.
    Obeng BB, Amoah AS, Larbi IA, Yazdanbakhsh M, van Ree R, Boakye DA, et al. Food allergy in Ghanaian schoolchildren: data on sensitization and reported food allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2011;155(1):63–73. Scholar
  37. 37.
    De Souza M. Allergic conditions in a general practice in Nairobi: a pilot study. East Afr Med J. 1992 Dec;69(12):700–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lunet N, Falcão H, Sousa M, Bay N, Barros H. Self-reported food and drug allergy in Maputo. Mozamb Public Health. 2005 Jul;119(7):587–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sánchez J, Sánchez A. Epidemiology of food allergy in Latin America. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2015 Mar-Apr;43(2):185–95. Scholar
  40. 40.
    Marrugo J, Hernández L, Villalba V. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in Cartagena (Colombia) population. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2008 Nov-Dec;36(6):320–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cabrera-Chávez F, Rodríguez-Bellegarrigue CI, Figueroa-Salcido OG, Lopez-Gallardo JA, Arámburo-Gálvez JG, Vergara-Jiménez MJ, et al. Food Allergy Prevalence in Salvadoran Schoolchildren Estimated by Parent-Report. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Nov 2;15(11):E2446. Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gonçalves LC, Guimarães TC, Silva RM, Cheik MF, de Ramos Nápolis AC, Barbosa E, Silva G, et al. Prevalence of food allergy in infants and pre-schoolers in Brazil. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2016 Nov–Dec;44(6):497–503. Scholar
  43. 43.
    Irani C, Maalouly G. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in Lebanon: a middle-eastern taste. Int Sch Res Notices. 2015;2015:639796. Scholar
  44. 44.
    Al-Hammadi S, Al-Maskari F, Bernsen R. Prevalence of food allergy among children in Al-Ain city, United Arab Emirates. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;151(4):336–42. Scholar
  45. 45.
    Graif Y, German L, Livne I, Shohat T. Association of food allergy with asthma severity and atopic diseases in Jewish and Arab adolescents. Acta Paediatr. 2012 Oct;101(10):1083–8. Scholar
  46. 46.
    Du Toit G, Katz Y, Sasieni P, Mesher D, Maleki SJ, Fisher HR, et al. Early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Nov;122(5):984–91. Scholar
  47. 47.
    Prescott SL, Pawankar R, Allen KJ, Campbell DE, Sinn JK, Fiocchi A, et al. A global survey of changing patterns of food allergy burden in children. World Allergy Organ J. 2013 Dec 4;6(1):21. Scholar
  48. 48.
    Soller L, Ben-Shoshan M, Harrington DW, Fragapane J, Joseph L, St Pierre Y, et al. Overall prevalence of self-reported food allergy in canada. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Feb;129(2):AB234. Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ontiveros N, Valdez-Meza EE, Vergara-Jiménez MJ, Canizalez-Román A, Borzutzky A, Cabrera-Chávez F. Parent-reported prevalence of food allergy in Mexican schoolchildren: a population-based study. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2016 Nov–Dec;44(6):563–70. Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gonzales-González VA, Díaz AM, Fernández K, Rivera MF. Prevalence of food allergens sensitization and food allergies in a group of allergic Honduran children. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2018 Jun 18;14:23. Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hoyos-Bachiloglu R, Ivanovic-Zuvic D, Álvarez J, Linn K, Thöne N, de los Ángeles Paul M, et al. Prevalence of parent-reported immediate hypersensitivity food allergy in Chilean school-aged children. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2014 Nov-Dec;42(6):527–32. Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ali F. A survey of self-reported food allergy and food-related anaphylaxis among young adult students at Kuwait University. Kuwait Med Princ Pract. 2017;26(3):229–34. Scholar
  53. 53.
    Orhan F, Karakas T, Cakir M, Aksoy A, Baki A, Gedik Y. Prevalence of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009 Jul;39(7):1027–35. Scholar
  54. 54.
    Protudjer JL, Vetander M, Kull I, Hedlin G, van Hage M, Wickman M, et al. Food-related symptoms and food allergy in Swedish children from early life to adolescence. PLoS One. 2016 Nov 15;11(11):e0166347. Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kvenshagen B, Halvorsen R, Jacobsen M. Is there an increased frequency of food allergy in children delivered by caesarean section compared to those delivered vaginally? Acta Paediatr. 2009 Feb;98(2):324–7. Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rancé F, Grandmottet X, Grandjean H. Prevalence and main characteristics of schoolchildren diagnosed with food allergies in France. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005 Feb;35(2):167–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Saleh-Langenberg J, Bootsma GM, van Ginkel CD, Kollen BJ, Flokstra-de Blok BM, Dubois AE. The prevalence of food allergy and epinephrine auto-injectors in Dutch food-allergic adolescents. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2016 Nov;27(7):755–9. Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gaspar-Marques J, Carreiro-Martins P, Papoila AL, Caires I, Pedro C, Araújo-Martins J, et al. Food allergy and anaphylaxis in infants and preschool-age children. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2014 Jun;53(7):652–7. Scholar
  59. 59.
    Baricic TV, Catipovic M, Cetinic EL, Krmek V, Horvat I. Parental perception, prevalence and primary care Physicians’ knowledge on childhood food allergy in Croatia. Children (Basel). 2015 Jul 17;2(3):305–16. Scholar
  60. 60.
    Papathoma E, Triga M, Fouzas S, Dimitriou G. Cesarean section delivery and development of food allergy and atopic dermatitis in early childhood. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2016 Jun;27(4):419–24. Scholar
  61. 61.
    Thrastardottir AR, Thordardottir FR, Torfadottir J. Protocols Related to Food Allergies and Intolerances in Preschools in Reykjavik, Iceland. Laeknabladid. 2018 Jan;104(1):11–7. Scholar
  62. 62.
    Roehr CC, Edenharter G, Reimann S, Ehlers I, Worm M, Zuberbier T, et al. Food allergy and non-allergic food hypersensitivity in children and adolescents. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004 Oct;34(10):1534–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Krause TG, Koch A, Poulsen LK, Kristensen B, Olsen OR, Melbye M. Atopic sensitization among children in an Arctic environment. Clin Exp Allergy. 2002 Mar;32(3):367–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ho M, Lee SL, Wong WH, Ip P, Lau YL. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in Hong Kong children and teens--a population survey. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2012 Dec;30(4):275–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wu TC, Tsai TC, Huang CF, Chang FY, Lin CC, Huang IF, et al. Prevalence of food allergy in Taiwan: a questionnaire-based survey. Intern Med J. 2012 Dec;42(12):1310–5. Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lao-araya M, Trakultivakorn M. Prevalence of food allergy among preschool children in northern Thailand. Pediatr Int. 2012 Apr;54(2):238–43. Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dyer AA, Gupta R. Epidemiology of childhood food allergy. Pediatr Ann. 2013 Jun 1;42(6):91–5. Scholar
  68. 68.
    Motosue MS, Bellolio MF, Van Houten HK, Shah ND, Campbell RL. National trends in emergency department visits and hospitalizations for food-induced anaphylaxis in US children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2018 Aug;29(5):538–44. Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dyer AA, Lau CH, Smith TL, Smith BM, Gupta RS. Pediatric emergency department visits and hospitalizations due to food-induced anaphylaxis in Illinois. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015 Jul;115(1):56–62. Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bohlke K, Davis RL, DeStefano F, Marcy SM, Braun MM, Thompson RS, et al. Epidemiology of anaphylaxis among children and adolescents enrolled in a health maintenance organization. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Mar;113(3):536–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Nowak-Wegrzyn A. What makes children outgrow food allergy? Clin Exp Allergy. 2015 Nov;45(11):1618–20. Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gupta RS, Lau CH, Sita EE, Smith B, Greenhawt MJ. Factors associated with reported food allergy tolerance among US children. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013 Sep;111(3):194–198.e4. Scholar
  73. 73.
    Santos A, Dias A, Pinheiro JA. Predictive factors for the persistence of cow’s milk allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010 Dec;21(8):1127–34. Scholar
  74. 74.
    Savage JH, Kaeding AJ, Matsui EC, Wood RA. The natural history of soy allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Mar;125(3):683–6. Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sampson HA, Scanlon SM. Natural history of food hypersensitivity in children with atopic dermatitis. J Pediatr. 1989 Jul;115(1):23–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sampson HA, McCaskill CC. Food hypersensitivity and atopic dermatitis: evaluation of 113 patients. J Pediatr. 1985 Nov;107(5):669–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Al-Muhsen S, Clarke AE, Kagan RS. Peanut allergy: an overview. CMAJ. 2003 May 13;168(10):1279–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lee LA, Burks AW. Food allergies: prevalence, molecular characterization, and treatment/prevention strategies. Annu Rev Nutr. 2006;26:539–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sampson HA. Update on food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 May;113(5):805–19; quiz 820.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sicherer SH, Bock SA. An expanding evidence base provides food for thought to avoid indigestion in managing difficult dilemmas in food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Jun;117(6):1419–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bégin P, Paradis L, Paradis J, Picard M, Des RA. Natural resolution of peanut allergy: a 12-year longitudinal follow-up study. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2013 Sep-Oct;1(5):528–30.e1–4. Scholar
  82. 82.
    Office of Budget and Management. Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity 1997. Federal Register (FR Doc No: 97–28653);62(210):58782. Available from:
  83. 83.
    Liu AH, Jaramillo R, Sicherer SH, Wood RA, Bock SA, Burks AW, et al. National prevalence and risk factors for food allergy and relationship to asthma: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Oct;126(4):798–806.e13. Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gupta RS, Springston EE, Warrier MR, Smith B, Kumar R, Pongracic J, et al. The prevalence, severity, and distribution of childhood food allergy in the United States. Pediatrics. 2011 Jul;128(1):e9–17. Scholar
  85. 85.
    McGowan EC, Matsui EC, McCormack MC, Pollack CE, Peng R, Keet CA. Effect of poverty, urbanization, and race/ethnicity on perceived food allergy in the United States. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015 Jul;115(1):85–6.e2. Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wang Y, Allen KJ, Suaini NHA, Peters RL, Ponsonby AL, Koplin JJ. Asian children living in Australia have a different profile of allergy and anaphylaxis than Australian-born children: a state-wide survey. Clin Exp Allergy. 2018 Oct;48(10):1317–24. Scholar
  87. 87.
    Koplin JJ, Peters RL, Ponsonby AL, Gurrin LC, Hill D, Tang ML, et al. Increased risk of peanut allergy in infants of Asian-born parents compared to those of Australian-born parents. Allergy. 2014 Dec;69(12):1639–47. Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sampson HA. Role of immediate food hypersensitivity in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1983 May;71(5):473–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Greenhawt M, Weiss C, Conte ML, Doucet M, Engler A, Camargo CA Jr. Racial and ethnic disparity in food allergy in the United States: a systematic review. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2013 Jul-Aug;1(4):378–86. Scholar
  90. 90.
    Milner JD, Stein DM, McCarter R, Moon RY. Early infant multivitamin supplementation is associated with increased risk for food allergy and asthma. Pediatrics. 2004 Jul;114(1):27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sicherer SH, Muñoz-Furlong A, Sampson HA. Prevalence of seafood allergy in the United States determined by a random telephone survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Jul;114(1):159–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Luccioli S, Ross M, Labiner-Wolfe J, Fein SB. Maternally reported food allergies and other food-related health problems in infants: characteristics and associated factors. Pediatrics. 2008 Oct;122(Suppl 2):S105–12. Scholar
  93. 93.
    Branum AM, Lukacs SL. Food allergy among children in the United States. Pediatrics. 2009 Dec;124(6):1549–55. Scholar
  94. 94.
    Keet CA, Wood RA, Matsui EC. Personal and parental nativity as risk factors for food sensitization. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Jan;129(1):169–75.e1–5. Scholar
  95. 95.
    Victorino CC, Gauthier AH. The social determinants of child health: variations across health outcomes – a population-based cross-sectional analysis. BMC Pediatr. 2009 Aug 17;9:53. Scholar
  96. 96.
    Joseph CL, Zoratti EM, Ownby DR, Havstad S, Nicholas C, Nageotte C, et al. Exploring racial differences in IgE-mediated food allergy in the WHEALS birth cohort. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016 Mar;116(3):219–224.e1. Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sicherer SH, Wood RA, Stablein D, Lindblad R, Burks AW, Liu AH, et al. Maternal consumption of peanut during pregnancy is associated with peanut sensitization in atopic infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Dec;126(6):1191–7. Scholar
  98. 98.
    Taylor-Black S, Wang J. The prevalence and characteristics of food allergy in urban minority children. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2012 Dec;109(6):431–7. Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wegienka G, Johnson CC, Zoratti E, Havstad S. Racial differences in allergic sensitization: recent findings and future directions. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2013 Jun;13(3):255–61. Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lin RY, Anderson AS, Shah SN, Nurruzzaman F. Increasing anaphylaxis hospitalizations in the first 2 decades of life: New York State, 1990–2006. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008 Oct;101(4):387–93. Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rudders SA, Espinola JA, Camargo CA Jr. North-south differences in US emergency department visits for acute allergic reactions. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010 May;104(5):413–6. Scholar
  102. 102.
    Banerji A, Rudders SA, Corel B, Garth AP, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr. Predictors of hospital admission for food-related allergic reactions that present to the emergency department. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011 Jan;106(1):42–8. Scholar
  103. 103.
    Harduar-Morano L, Simon MR, Watkins S, Blackmore C. A population-based epidemiologic study of emergency department visits for anaphylaxis in Florida. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Sep;128(3):594–600.e1. Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gupta RS, Kim JS, Springston EE, Smith B, Pongracic JA, Wang X, et al. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs in the United States. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009 Jul;103(1):43–50. Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gupta RS, Springston EE, Smith B, Pongracic J, Holl JL, Warrier MR. Parent report of physician diagnosis in pediatric food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Jan;131(1):150–6. Scholar
  106. 106.
    Williams DR, Priest N, Anderson NB. Understanding associations among race, socioeconomic status, and health: patterns and prospects. Health Psychol. 2016 Apr;35(4):407–11. Scholar
  107. 107.
    Bilaver LA, Kester KM, Smith BM, Gupta RS. Socioeconomic disparities in the economic impact of childhood food allergy. Pediatrics. 2016 May;137(5):e20153678. Scholar
  108. 108.
    Sakai-Bizmark R, Friedlander SMI, Oshima K, Webber EJ, Mena LA, Marr EH, et al. Urban/rural residence effect on emergency department visits arising from food-induced anaphylaxis. Allergol Int. 2019 Feb 5; Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jialing Jiang
    • 1
  • Christopher M. Warren
    • 1
  • Ruchi S. Gupta
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Northwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineCenter for Food Allergy and Asthma ResearchChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Center for Food Allergy and Asthma Research, Northwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations