Analyzing Discourse in EMI Courses from an ELF Perspective
- 49 Downloads
Although characteristics of academic lectures in English-medium instruction (EMI) are well-documented within the framework of the functional and/or corpus-based approach, they have not been studied in terms of how they are affected by the classroom context; therefore, our study explores how similarly and/or differently instructors deliver their EMI lectures, considering the environment each instructor is put in. We video-recorded the lectures of three content professors for a total of about 180 minutes while observing and taking field notes of each class. We applied thematic analysis with no pre-determined framework and divided each instructor’s discourse into several categories in an inductive way. Our findings show that the instructors’ speech rate and their discourse organization varied greatly depending on the overall context, and that no general discourse patterns were observed. We suggest that the characteristics of EMI lectures be identified not only linguistically but also holistically, considering the classroom context.
This study has been supported by the Waseda Institute for Advanced Studies in Education (General Committee on IASE Research Projects, B-11 for 2018 and B-01 for 2019), and jointly done with Prof. Yasuyo Sawaki in the Faculty of Education and Integrated Arts and Sciences and Ms. Kana Matsumura in the Graduate School of Education. We thank the three instructors for allowing us to observe and videotape their lectures.
- Biber, D., Reppen, R., Clark, V., & Walter, J. (2001). Representing spoken language in university settings: The design and construction of the spoken component of the T2K-SWAL Corpus. In Corpus linguistics in North America (pp. 48–57). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
- Brinton, D. M., & Snow, M. A. (2017). The evolving architecture of content-based instruction. In M. A. Snow & D. M. Brinton (Eds.), The content-based classroom: New perspectives on integrating language and content (2nd ed., pp. 2–20). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
- Cogo, A. (2009). Accommodating difference in ELF conversations: A study of pragmatic strategies. In A. Mauranen & E. Ranta (Eds.), English as a lingua franca: Studies and findings (Vol. 254–273). Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars.Google Scholar
- Cummins, J. (2008). BICS and CALP: Empirical and theoretical status of the distinction. In Encyclopedia of language and education: Vol. 2. Literacy (2nd ed., pp. 71–83). New York: Springer Science.Google Scholar
- Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2017). The Sage handbook of qualitative research (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- ELFA. (2008). The corpus of English as a lingua franca in academic settings. Retrieved from http://www.helsinki.fi/elfa/.
- Harada, T. (2017). Developing a content-based English as a foreign language program: Needs analysis and curriculum design at the university level. In M. A. Snow & D. M. Brinton (Eds.), The content-based classroom: New perspectives on integrating language and content (2nd ed., pp. 37–52). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
- Hülmbauer, C. (2007). You moved, aren’t?’—The relationship between lexicogrammatical correctness and communicative effectiveness in English as a lingua franca. VIEWS—Vienna English Working Papers, 16, 3–35.Google Scholar
- Kudo, S., Harada, T., Eguchi, M., Moriya, R., & Suzuki, S. (2017). Investigating English speaking anxiety in English-medium instruction. Essays on English Language and Literature, 46, 7–23.Google Scholar
- Mauranen, A. (2018). Conceptualising ELF. In J. Jenkins, W. Baker, & M. Dewey (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of English as a lingua franca (pp. 7–24). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Murata, K. (2019a). Exploring EMI in higher education from an ELF perspective: Introduction. In K. Murata (Ed.), English-medium instruction from an English as a lingua franca perspective (pp. 1–11). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Murata, K. (2019b). The realities of the use of English in the globalised world and the teaching of English: A discrepancy? (Invited papers by lecturers for JACET 44th Summer Seminar 2017, Tokyo). JACET Journal, 63, 7–26.Google Scholar
- Murata, K., & Iino, M. (2018). EMI in higher education: An ELF perspective. In J. Jenkins, W. Baker, & M. Dewey (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of English as a lingua franca (pp. 400–412). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Murata, K., Konakahara, M., Iino, M., & Toyoshima, N. (2019). EMI参加に伴う学生のELFへの意識変化とELF使用へのビジネスピープルの意識差の調査と英語教育への示唆 [An investigation into attitudes towards English as a lingua franca (ELF) in English-medium instruction (EMI) and business settings and its implications for English language pedagogy]. Waseda Review of Education, 33(1), 19–38.Google Scholar
- Sinclair, J. M., & Coulthard, M. (1975). Towards an analysis of discourse: The English used by teachers and pupils. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Suzuki, S., Harada, T., Eguchi, M., Kudo, S., & Moriya, R. (2018). Students’ perspectives on the role of English-medium instruction in English learning: A case study. Bulletin of the Graduate School of Education of Waseda University. Separate Volume, 26(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
- Taguchi, N. (2014). Pragmatic socialization in an English-medium university in Japan. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 52(2), 157–181.Google Scholar