Depression, Diabetes-Related Distress, and Anxiety in Pediatric Diabetes

  • Meredyth A. Evans
  • Anthony T. Vesco
  • Jill Weissberg-BenchellEmail author


In the context of pediatric diabetes, depression and anxiety are associated with the direct medical management of diabetes and with social and family functioning. Data indicate that youth who experience depression and/or anxiety also suffer from an increased risk for negative health outcomes, and these risks are related to the psychological distress and perceived burden of daily diabetes management. Family factors such as poor cohesion, parental criticism, and family psychiatric history may be associated with increased symptoms of depression and anxiety. Family-based interventions that integrate education about diabetes in addition to traditional therapy strategies are effective for ameliorating depression and anxiety. Regular screening during outpatient diabetes clinics for depression and anxiety can help to identify youth with diabetes in need of psychological services. Consideration of the family and social environments in which children live is important to optimizing care. The literature for youth with type 2 diabetes is more limited than for youth with type 1, and further work to understand the etiology of symptoms and appropriate interventions is necessary.


Depression Anxiety Pediatric diabetes Type 1 diabetes Children Adolescents 


  1. Al Hayek, A. A., Robert, A. A., Braham, R. B., Issa, B. A., & Al Sabaan, F. S. (2015). Predictive risk factors for fear of hypoglycemia and anxiety-related emotional disorders among adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Medical Principles and Practice, 24(3), 222–230.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almandil, N. B., Liu, Y., Murray, M. L., Besag, F. M., Aitchison, K. J., & Wong, I. C. (2013). Weight gain and other metabolic adverse effects associated with atypical antipsychotic treatment of children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatric Drugs, 15(2), 139–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Diabetes Association. (2017). 12. Children and adolescents. Diabetes Care, 40(Supplement 1), S105–S113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, B. J., Auslander, W. F., Jung, K. C., Miller, J. P., & Santiago, J. V. (1990). Assessing family sharing of diabetes responsibilities. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 15(4), 477–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, B. J., & Coyne, J. C. (1991). “Miscarried helping” in the families of children and adolescents with chronic diseases. In Advances in child health psychology (pp. 167–177). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, E. R., & Mayes, L. C. (2010). Race/ethnicity and internalizing disorders in youth: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(3), 338–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnett, J. J., Žukauskienė, R., & Sugimura, K. (2014). The new life stage of emerging adulthood at ages 18–29 years: Implications for mental health. The Lancet Psychiatry, 1(7), 569–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baeza, I., Vigo, L., de la Serna, E., Calvo-Escalona, R., Merchán-Naranjo, J., Rodríguez-Latorre, P., … Castro-Fornieles, J. (2017). The effects of antipsychotics on weight gain, weight-related hormones and homocysteine in children and adolescents: A 1-year follow-up study. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(1), 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernstein, C. M., Stockwell, M. S., Gallagher, M. P., Rosenthal, S. L., & Soren, K. (2013). Mental health issues in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes prevalence and impact on glycemic control. Clinical Pediatrics, 52(1), 10–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boland, E. A., Grey, M., Mezger, J. A., & Tamborlane, W. V. (1999). A summer vacation from diabetes: Evidence from a clinical trial. The Diabetes Educator, 25(1), 31–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boogerd, E. A., Damhuis, A., van Alfen-van der Velden, J. A., Steeghs, M. C., Noordam, C., Verhaak, C. M., & Vermaes, I. P. (2015). Assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes and their families: The added value of using standardised questionnaires in addition to clinical estimations of nurses and paediatricians. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24(15–16), 2143–2151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Briery, B. G., & Rabian, B. (1999). Psychosocial changes associated with participation in a pediatric summer camp. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 24(2), 183–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Broadhurst, P. L. (1959). The interaction of task difficulty and motivation: The Yerkes-Dodson Law revived. Acta Psychologica, 16, 321–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, L. C., Majumdar, S. R., Newman, S. C., & Johnson, J. A. (2005). History of depression increases risk of type 2 diabetes in younger adults. Diabetes Care, 28(5), 1063–1067.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Butner, J., Berg, C. A., Osborn, P., Butler, J. M., Godri, C., Fortenberry, K. T., & Wysocki, D. J. (2009). Parent–adolescent discrepancies in adolescents’ competence and the balance of adolescent autonomy and adolescent and parent well-being in the context of type 1 diabetes. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 835.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Butwicka, A., Frisén, L., Almqvist, C., Zethelius, B., & Lichtenstein, P. (2015). Risks of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A population-based cohort study. Diabetes Care, 38(3), 453–459.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Butwicka, A., Zalepa, A., Fendler, W., Szadkowska, A., & Mlynarski, W. (2013). Maternal depressive symptoms predict acute hospitalization among children with type 1 diabetes. Pediatric Diabetes, 14(4), 288–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Calles, J. L. (2007). Depression in children and adolescents. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 34(2), 243–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cameron, L. D., Young, M. J., & Wiebe, D. J. (2007). Maternal trait anxiety and diabetes control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32(7), 733–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooper, W. O., Hickson, G. B., Fuchs, C., Arbogast, P. G., & Ray, W. A. (2004). New users of antipsychotic medications among children enrolled in TennCare. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 158(8), 753–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Copeland, K. C., Zeitler, P., Geffner, M., Guandalini, C., Higgins, J., Hirst, K., & Pyle, L. (2011). Characteristics of adolescents and youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes: The TODAY cohort at baseline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 96(1), 159–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Corathers, S. D., Kichler, J., Jones, N. H. Y., Houchen, A., Jolly, M., Morwessel, N., & Hood, K. K. (2013). Improving depression screening for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Pediatrics, 132(5), e1395–e1402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cunningham, N. R., Vesco, A. T., Dolan, L. M., & Hood, K. K. (2011). From caregiver psychological distress to adolescent glycemic control: The mediating role of perceived burden around diabetes management. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36(2), 196–205. Scholar
  24. de Wit, M., & Snoek, F. J. (2011). Depressive symptoms and unmet psychological needs of Dutch youth with type 1 diabetes: Results of a web-survey. Pediatric Diabetes, 12(3pt1), 172–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. dos Santos, M. A. B., Ceretta, L. B., Réus, G. Z., Abelaira, H. M., Jornada, L. K., Schwalm, M. T., & Quevedo, J. (2014). Anxiety disorders are associated with quality of life impairment in patients with insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes: A case-control study. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 36(4), 298–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dabelea, D., DeGroat, J., Sorrelman, C., Glass, M., Percy, C. A., Avery, C., & Testaverde, L. (2009). Diabetes in Navajo youth. Diabetes Care, 32(Supplement 2), S141–S147.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. De Groot, M., Anderson, R., Freedland, K., Clouse, R., & Lustman, P. J. (2001). Association of diabetes complications and depression in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis. Diabetes, 49(5), A63.Google Scholar
  28. Delamater, A. M., de Wit, M., McDarby, V., Malik, J., & Acerini, C. L. (2014). Psychological care of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Pediatric Diabetes, 15(S20), 232–244.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Delamater, A. M., de Wit, M., McDarby, V., Malik, J., Hilliard, M. E., Northam, E., & Acerini, C. L. (2018). ISPAD clinical practice consensus guidelines: Psychological care of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Pediatric Diabetes, 19(Supplement 27), 237–249. Scholar
  30. Duke, D. C., Geffken, G. R., Lewin, A. B., Williams, L. B., Storch, E. A., & Silverstein, J. H. (2008). Glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes: Family predictors and mediators. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 33(7), 719–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Faulkner, M. S., & Chang, L. I. (2007). Family influence on self-care, quality of life, and metabolic control in school-age children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 22(1), 59–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fisher, L., Gonzalez, J. S., & Polonsky, W. H. (2014). The confusing tale of depression and distress in patients with diabetes: A call for greater clarity and precision. Diabetic Medicine, 31(7), 764–772.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fisher, L., Hessler, D. M., Polonsky, W. H., Masharani, U., Peters, A. L., Blumer, I., & Strycker, L. A. (2016). Prevalence of depression in type 1 diabetes and the problem of over-diagnosis. Diabetic Medicine, 33, 1590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fisher, L., Mullan, J. T., Arean, P., Glasgow, R. E., Hessler, D., & Masharani, U. (2010). Diabetes distress but not clinical depression or depressive symptoms is associated with glycemic control in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Diabetes Care, 33(1), 23–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fisher, L., Skaff, M. M., Mullan, J. T., Arean, P., Glasgow, R., & Masharani, U. (2008). A longitudinal study of affective and anxiety disorders, depressive affect and diabetes distress in adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 25(9), 1096–1101.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Galling, B., Roldán, A., Nielsen, R. E., Nielsen, J., Gerhard, T., Carbon, M., & Kahl, K. G. (2016). Type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth exposed to antipsychotics: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(3), 247–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garrison, M. M., Katon, W. J., & Richardson, L. P. (2005). The impact of psychiatric comorbidities on readmissions for diabetes in youth. Diabetes Care, 28(9), 2150–2154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gonder-Frederick, L., Nyer, M., Shepard, J. A., Vajda, K., & Clarke, W. (2011). Assessing fear of hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes and their parents. Diabetes Management, 1(6), 627–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gonder-Frederick, L. A., Fisher, C. D., Ritterband, L. M., Cox, D. J., Hou, L., DasGupta, A. A., & Clarke, W. L. (2006). Predictors of fear of hypoglycemia in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents. Pediatric Diabetes, 7(4), 215–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Grey, M., Boland, E. A., Davidson, M., Li, J., & Tamborlane, W. V. (2000). Coping skills training for youth with diabetes mellitus has long-lasting effects on metabolic control and quality of life. The Journal of Pediatrics, 137(1), 107–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grey, M., Cameron, M. E., Lipman, T. H., & Thurber, F. W. (1995). Psychosocial status of children with diabetes in the first 2 years after diagnosis. Diabetes Care, 18(10), 1330–1336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Grey, M., Whittemore, R., Jaser, S., Ambrosino, J., Lindemann, E., Liberti, L., & Dziura, J. (2009). Effects of coping skills training in school-age children with type 1 diabetes. Research in Nursing & Health, 32(4), 405–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Grey, M., Whittemore, R., Jeon, S., Murphy, K., Faulkner, M. S., Delamater, A., & TeenCope Study Group. (2013). Internet psycho-education programs improve outcomes in youth with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 36(9), 2475–2482.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grey, M., Whittemore, R., & Tamborlane, W. (2002). Depression in type 1 diabetes in children: Natural history and correlates. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53(4), 907–911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gross, R., Olfson, M., Gameroff, M. J., Carasquillo, O., Shea, S., Feder, A., & Weissman, M. M. (2005). Depression and glycemic control in Hispanic primary care patients with diabetes. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20(5), 460–466.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hagger, V., Hendrieckx, C., Sturt, J., Skinner, T. C., & Speight, J. (2016). Diabetes distress among adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A systematic review. Current Diabetes Reports, 16(1), 9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hains, A. A., Davies, W. H., Parton, E., & Silverman, A. H. (2001). Brief report: A cognitive behavioral intervention for distressed adolescents with type I diabetes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 26(1), 61–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hannon, T. S., Rofey, D. L., Lee, S., & Arslanian, S. A. (2013). Depressive symptoms and metabolic markers of risk for type 2 diabetes in obese adolescents. Pediatric Diabetes, 14(7), 497–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harris, M. A., Freeman, K. A., & Duke, D. C. (2015). Seeing is believing: using Skype to improve diabetes outcomes in youth. Diabetes Care, 38(8), 1427–1434.Google Scholar
  50. Hassan, K., Loar, R., Anderson, B. J., & Heptulla, R. A. (2006). The role of socioeconomic status, depression, quality of life, and glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The Journal of Pediatrics, 149(4), 526–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Helgeson, V. S., Siminerio, L., Escobar, O., & Becker, D. (2009). Predictors of metabolic control among adolescents with diabetes: A 4-year longitudinal study. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34(3), 254–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Herzer, M., & Hood, K. K. (2009). Anxiety symptoms in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: association with blood glucose monitoring and glycemic control. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(4), 415–425. Scholar
  53. Herzer, M., Vesco, A., Ingerski, L. M., Dolan, L. M., & Hood, K. K. (2011). Explaining the family conflict-glycemic control link through psychological variables in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 34(4), 268–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hilliard, M. E., Herzer, M., Dolan, L. M., & Hood, K. K. (2011). Psychological screening in adolescents with type 1 diabetes predicts outcomes one year later. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 94(1), 39–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hilliard, M. E., Wu, Y. P., Rausch, J., Dolan, L. M., & Hood, K. K. (2013). Predictors of deteriorations in diabetes management and control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52(1), 28-34.Google Scholar
  56. Hislop, A. L., Fegan, P. G., Schlaeppi, M. J., Duck, M., & Yeap, B. B. (2008). Prevalence and associations of psychological distress in young adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 25(1), 91–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hood, K. K., Beavers, D. P., Yi-Frazier, J., Bell, R., Dabelea, D., Mckeown, R. E., & Lawrence, J. M. (2014). Psychosocial burden and glycemic control during the first 6 years of diabetes: Results from the SEARCH for diabetes in youth study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55(4), 498–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hood, K. K., Huestis, S., Maher, A., Butler, D., Volkening, L., & Laffel, L. M. (2006). Depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 29(6), 1389–1389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hood, K. K., Rausch, J. R., & Dolan, L. M. (2011). Depressive symptoms predict change in glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Rates, magnitude, and moderators of change. Pediatric Diabetes, 12(8), 718–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jaser, S. S., & Grey, M. (2010). A pilot study of observed parenting and adjustment in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their mothers. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(7), 738–747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jaser, S. S., Holl, M. G., Jefferson, V., & Grey, M. (2009). Correlates of depressive symptoms in urban youth at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of School Health, 79(6), 286–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jaser, S. S., Whittemore, R., Ambrosino, J. M., Lindemann, E., & Grey, M. (2008). Mediators of depressive symptoms in children with type 1 diabetes and their mothers. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 33(5), 509–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jaycox, L. H., Stein, B. D., Paddock, S., Miles, J. N., Chandra, A., Meredith, L. S., & Burnam, M. A. (2009). Impact of teen depression on academic, social, and physical functioning. Pediatrics, 124(4), e596–e605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Johnson, B., Eiser, C., Young, V., Brierley, S., & Heller, S. (2013). Prevalence of depression among young people with type 1 diabetes: A systematic review. Diabetic Medicine, 30(2), 199–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Katz, L. L., Anderson, B. J., McKay, S. V., Izquierdo, R., Casey, T. L., Higgins, L. A., … Nadeau, K. J. (2016). Correlates of medication adherence in the TODAY cohort of youth with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 39(11), 1956–1962.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kumra, S., Oberstar, J. V., Sikich, L., Findling, R. L., McClellan, J. M., Vinogradov, S., & Schulz, S. C. (2008). Efficacy and tolerability of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34(1), 60–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lawrence, J. M., Standiford, D. A., Loots, B., Klingensmith, G. J., Williams, D. E., Ruggiero, A., & McKeown, R. E. (2006). Prevalence and correlates of depressed mood among youth with diabetes: The SEARCH for diabetes in youth study. Pediatrics, 117(4), 1348–1358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Li, C., Barker, L., Ford, E. S., Zhang, X., Strine, T. W., & Mokdad, A. H. (2008). Diabetes and anxiety in US adults: Findings from the 2006 behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Diabetic Medicine, 25(7), 878–881. Scholar
  69. Lustman, P. J., Anderson, R. J., Freedland, K. E., De Groot, M., Carney, R. M., & Clouse, R. E. (2000). Depression and poor glycemic control: A meta-analytic review of the literature. Diabetes Care, 23(7), 934–942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Markowitz, S. M., Gonzalez, J. S., Wilkinson, J. L., & Safren, S. A. (2011). A review of treating depression in diabetes: Emerging findings. Psychosomatics, 52(1), 1–18.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Marrast, L., Himmelstein, D. U., & Woolhandler, S. (2016). Racial and ethnic disparities in mental health care for children and young adults: A national study. International Journal of Health Services, 46(4), 810–824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McGrady, M. E., & Hood, K. K. (2013). Cognitive–behavioral therapy for adolescents with type 1 diabetes and subclinical depressive symptoms. Diabetes Management, 3(3), 207–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McGrady, M. E., Laffel, L., Drotar, D., Repaske, D., & Hood, K. K. (2009). Depressive symptoms and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 32(5), 804–806.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Miller, V. A., & Drotar, D. (2003). Discrepancies between mother and adolescent perceptions of diabetes-related decision-making autonomy and their relationship to diabetes-related conflict and adherence to treatment. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 28(4), 265–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Monaghan, M., Horn, I. B., Alvarez, V., Cogen, F. R., & Streisand, R. (2012). Authoritative parenting, parenting stress, and self-care in pre-adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 19(3), 255–261.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Musselman, D. L., Betan, E., Larsen, H., & Phillips, L. S. (2003). Relationship of depression to diabetes types 1 and 2: Epidemiology, biology, and treatment. Biological Psychiatry, 54(3), 317–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Naar-King, S., Idalski, A., Ellis, D., Frey, M., Templin, T., Cunningham, P. B., & Cakan, N. (2006). Gender differences in adherence and metabolic control in urban youth with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes: The mediating role of mental health symptoms. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31(8), 793–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nadeau, K., & Dabelea, D. (2008). Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. Endocrine Research, 33(1–2), 35–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Naicker, K., Johnson, J. A., Skogen, J. C., Manuel, D., Øverland, S., Silvertsen, B., & Colman, I. (2017). Type 2 Diabetes and Comorbid Symptoms of depression and anxiety: Longitudinal associations with mortality risk. Diabetes Care. Scholar
  80. Patton, S. R., Dolan, L. M., & Powers, S. W. (2006). Mealtime interactions relate to dietary adherence and glycemic control in young children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 29(5), 1002–1006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pereira, M. G., Berg-Cross, L., Almeida, P., & Machado, J. C. (2008). Impact of family environment and support on adherence, metabolic control, and quality of life in adolescents with diabetes. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15(3), 187–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Price, J. H., Khubchandani, J., McKinney, M., & Braun, R. (2013). Racial/ethnic disparities in chronic diseases of youths and access to health care in the United States. BioMed Research International, 2013, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Reiss, F. (2013). Socioeconomic inequalities and mental health problems in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Social Science & Medicine, 90, 24–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Reynolds, K. A., & Helgeson, V. S. (2011). Children with diabetes compared to peers: Depressed? Distressed? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 42(1), 29–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Riley, A. R., Duke, D. C., Freeman, K. A., Hood, K. K., & Harris, M. A. (2015). Depressive symptoms in a trial behavioral family systems therapy for diabetes: A post hoc analysis of change. Diabetes Care, 38(8), 1435–1440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rosselló, J. M., & Jiménez-Chafey, M. I. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for depression in adolescents with diabetes: A pilot study. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 40(2), 219–226.Google Scholar
  87. Rubin, R. R., Ma, Y., Marrero, D. G., Peyrot, M., Barrett-Connor, E. L., Kahn, S. E., … Knowler, W. C. (2008). Elevated depression symptoms, antidepressant medicine use, and risk of developing diabetes during the diabetes prevention program. Diabetes Care, 31(3), 420–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schwartz, D. D., Cline, V. D., Axelrad, M. E., & Anderson, B. J. (2011). Feasibility, acceptability, and predictive validity of a psychosocial screening program for children and youth newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 34(2), 326–331.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shomaker, L. B., Tanofsky-Kraff, M., Stern, E. A., Miller, R., Zocca, J. M., Field, S. E., & Yanovski, J. A. (2011). Longitudinal study of depressive symptoms and progression of insulin resistance in youth at risk for adult obesity. Diabetes Care, 34(11), 2458–2463.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Shomaker, L. B., Tanofsky-Kraff, M., Young-Hyman, D., Han, J. C., Yanoff, L. B., Brady, S. M., & Yanovski, J. A. (2010). Psychological symptoms and insulin sensitivity in adolescents. Pediatric Diabetes, 11(6), 417–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Shomaker, L. B., Kelly, N. R., Pickworth, C. K., Cassidy, O. L., Radin, R. M., Shank, L. M., ... & Demidowich, A. P. (2016). A randomized controlled trial to prevent depression and ameliorate insulin resistance in adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 50(5), 762–774.Google Scholar
  92. Shulman, S., & Connolly, J. (2013). The challenge of romantic relationships in emerging adulthood: Reconceptualization of the field. Emerging Adulthood, 1(1), 27–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Silverstein, J., Cheng, P., Ruedy, K. J., Kollman, C., Beck, R. W., Klingensmith, G. J., … Cengiz, E. (2015). Depressive symptoms in youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: Results of the pediatric diabetes consortium screening assessment of depression in diabetes study. Diabetes Care, 38(12), 2341–2343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Singh, E., Farruggia, S. P., & Peterson, E. R. (2013). Adolescents with diabetes: Support from healthcare teams and families. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 25(1), 91–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Skinner, T. C., John, M., & Hampson, S. E. (2000). Social support and personal models of diabetes as predictors of self-care and well-being: A longitudinal study of adolescents with diabetes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 25(4), 257–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sood, E. D., Pendley, J. S., Delamater, A. M., Rohan, J. M., Pulgaron, E. R., & Drotar, D. (2012). Mother–father informant discrepancies regarding diabetes management: Associations with diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control. Health Psychology, 31(5), 571.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Strickland, B. B., Jones, J. R., Ghandour, R. M., Kogan, M. D., & Newacheck, P. W. (2011). The medical home: health care access and impact for children and youth in the United States. Pediatrics. Scholar
  98. Suglia, S. F., Demmer, R. T., Wahi, R., Keyes, K. M., & Koenen, K. C. (2016). Depressive symptoms during adolescence and young adulthood and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Epidemiology. Scholar
  99. Tabák, A. G., Akbaraly, T. N., Batty, G. D., & Kivimäki, M. (2014). Depression and type 2 diabetes: A causal association? The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 2(3), 236–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Twenge, J. M., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2002). Age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and birth cohort difference on the children’s depression inventory: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111(4), 578–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Van der Feltz-Cornelis, C. M., Nuyen, J., Stoop, C., Chan, J., Jacobson, A. M., Katon, W., & Sartorius, N. (2010). Effect of interventions for major depressive disorder and significant depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(4), 380–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vesco, A. T., Anderson, B. J., Laffel, L. M., Dolan, L. M., Ingerski, L. M., & Hood, K. K. (2010). Responsibility sharing between adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their caregivers: Importance of adolescent perceptions on diabetes management and control. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(10), 1168–1177.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Weissberg-Benchell, J., & Antisdel-Lomaglio, J. (2011). Diabetes-specific emotional distress among adolescents: Feasibility, reliability, and validity of the problem areas in diabetes-teen version. Pediatric Diabetes, 12(4pt1), 341–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Weissman, M. M., Bland, R. C., Canino, G. J., Faravelli, C., Greenwald, S., Hwu, H. G., & Lépine, J. P. (1996). Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder. JAMA, 276(4), 293–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Whittemore, R., Kanner, S., Singleton, S., Hamrin, V., Chiu, J., & Grey, M. (2002). Correlates of depressive symptoms in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Pediatric Diabetes, 3(3), 135–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Whitworth, S. R., Bruce, D. G., Starkstein, S. E., Davis, W. A., Davis, T. M. E., & Bucks, R. S. (2016). Lifetime depression and anxiety increase prevalent psychological symptoms and worsen glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: The Fremantle diabetes study phase II. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 122, 190–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wiebe, D. J., Berg, C. A., Korbel, C., Palmer, D. L., Beveridge, R. M., Upchurch, R., & Donaldson, D. L. (2005). Children’s appraisals of maternal involvement in coping with diabetes: Enhancing our understanding of adherence, metabolic control, and quality of life across adolescence. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30(2), 167–178.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Williams, L. B., Laffel, L. M. B., & Hood, K. K. (2009). Diabetes-specific family conflict and psychological distress in paediatric type 1 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 26(9), 908–914.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wu, Y. P., Hilliard, M. E., Rausch, J., Dolan, L. M., & Hood, K. K. (2013). Family involvement with the diabetes regimen in young people: The role of adolescent depressive symptoms. Diabetic Medicine, 30(5), 596–602.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wysocki, T., Harris, M. A., Buckloh, L. M., Mertlich, D., Lochrie, A. S., Mauras, N., & White, N. H. (2007). Randomized trial of behavioral family systems therapy for diabetes maintenance of effects on diabetes outcomes in adolescents. Diabetes Care, 30(3), 555–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wysocki, T., Harris, M. A., Buckloh, L. M., Mertlich, D., Lochrie, A. S., Taylor, A., & White, N. H. (2006). Effects of behavioral family systems therapy for diabetes on adolescents’ family relationships, treatment adherence, and metabolic control. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31(9), 928–938.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wysocki, T., Harris, M. A., Buckloh, L. M., Mertlich, D., Lochrie, A. S., Taylor, A., & White, N. H. (2008). Randomized, controlled trial of behavioral family systems therapy for diabetes: Maintenance and generalization of effects on parent-adolescent communication. Behavior Therapy, 39(1), 33–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wysocki, T., Nansel, T. R., Holmbeck, G. N., Chen, R., Laffel, L., Anderson, B. J., & Weissberg-Benchell, J. (2009). Collaborative involvement of primary and secondary caregivers: Associations with youths’ diabetes outcomes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34(8), 869–881.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Young-Hyman, D., de Groot, M., Hill-Briggs, F., Gonzalez, J. S., Hood, K., & Peyrot, M. (2016). Psychosocial care for people with diabetes: A position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 39(12), 2126–2140.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zenlea, I. S., Mednick, L., Rein, J., Quinn, M., Wolfsdorf, J., & Rhodes, E. T. (2014). Routine behavioral and mental health screening in young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatric Diabetes, 15(5), 384–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zuddas, A., Zanni, R., & Usala, T. (2011). Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) for non-psychotic disorders in children and adolescents: A review of the randomized controlled studies. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 21(8), 600–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meredyth A. Evans
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anthony T. Vesco
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jill Weissberg-Benchell
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Northwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations