Summary and Implications for Clinical Practice and Research in Adult Populations

  • David G. Marrero
  • Alan M. DelamaterEmail author


Diabetes has been recognized for over 5000 years. For generations, the ability to effectively treat it was virtually nonexistent. Fortunately, over the past few decades, there has been a virtual explosion of advances that have significantly changed the ability to control the disease. These include the discovery and production of insulin, the growth of a wide array of pharmacologic treatments, and the increasing use of advanced technologies that enable us to assess the adequacy of therapy and make appropriate therapeutic decisions. For example, the introduction of using glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, systems that enable patients to measure their glucose at home, and the continuing rise of continuous glucose monitoring have significantly improved therapeutic strategies and patients’ ability to self-manage their condition. In addition, the role of education in achieving more optimal outcomes is now widely recognized and routinely integrated into routine care.


Diabetes Adults Psychosocial factors Health behaviors Regimen adherence Clinical interventions Research issues 


  1. Baig, A. A., Benitez, A., Quinn, M. T., & Burnet, D. L. (2015). Family interventions to improve diabetes outcomes for adults. Annal of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1353, 89–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown, A., Kennedy, L., Runge, A., & Close, K. (2016). Going beyond A1c – one outcome can’t do it all. The Diabtribe Foundation. Accessed at
  3. Cameron, F. (2006). Teenagers with diabetes: Management challenges. Australian Family Physician, 35, 386–390.Google Scholar
  4. Collinsworth, A. W., Vulimiri, M., Snead, C. A., & Walton, J. (2014). Community health workers in primary care practice: Redesigning health care delivery systems to extend and improve diabetes care in underserved populations. Health Promotion Practice, 15(2 Suppl), 51S–61S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dale, J. R., Williams, S. M., & Bowyer, V. (2012). What is the effect of peer support on diabetes outcomes in adults? A systematic review. Diabetic Medicine, 29, 1361–1377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fisher, E. B., Ballesteros, J., Bhushan, N., Coufal, M. M., Kowitt, S. D., McDonough, A. M., … Urlaub, D. (2015). Key features of peer support in chronic disease prevention and management. Health Affairs, 34(9), 1523–1530. Scholar
  7. Food, U. S., & Administration, D. (2006). Guidance for industry: Patient-reported outcome measures: Use in medical product development to support labeling claims: Draft guidance. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 4, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kadirvelu, A., Sadasivan, S., & Ng, S. H. (2012). Social support in type 2 diabetes care: A case of too little, too late. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 5, 407–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Keith, K. (2018). Back in (regulatory) action. Health Aff (Millwood). Dec;37(12):1916-1917. doi: Epub 2018 Nov 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mayberry, L. S., Berg, C. A., Harper, K. J., & Obsorn, C. Y. (2016). The design, usability, and feasibility of a family-focused diabetes self-care support mHealth intervention for diverse, low-income adults with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Research. Scholar
  11. Oris, L., Seiffge-Krenke, I., Moons, P., Goubert, L., Rassart, J., Goossens, E., & Luyckx, K. (2016). Parental and peer support in adolescents with chronic condition: A typological approach and developmental implications. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 39, 107–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Rintala, T. M., Jaatinen, P., Paavilainen, E., & Astedt-Kurki, P. (2013). Interrelation between adult persons with diabetes and their family: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Family Nursing, 19, 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Stopford, R., Winkley, K., & Ismail, K. (2013). Social support and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of observational studies. Patient Education and Counseling, 93, 549–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Stuckey, H. L., Vallis, M., Kovacs Burns, K., Mullan-Jensen, C. B., Reading, J. M., Kalra, S., … Peyrot, M. (2015). “I do my best to listen to patients”: Qualitative insights into DAWN2 (diabetes psychosocial care from the perspective of health care professionals in the second diabetes attitudes, wishes and needs study). Clinical Therapeutics, 37(9), 1986–1998. Scholar
  15. Thombs, B. D., & Ziegelstein, R. C. (2014). Does depression screening improve depression outcomes in primary care? British Medical Journal, 348, g1253. Scholar
  16. Trief, P. M., Sandberg, J., Fisher, L., Dimmock, J. A., Scales, K., Hessler, D. M., & Weinstock, R. S. (2011). Challenges and lessons learned in the development and implementation of a couples-focused telephone intervention for adults with type 2 diabetes: The diabetes support project. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 1(3), 461–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. van Dam, H. A., van der Horst, F. G., Knoops, L., Ryckman, R. M., Crebolder, H. F. J. M., & van den Borne, B. H. W. (2004). Social support in diabetes: A systematic review of controlled intervention studies. Patient Education and Counseling, 59, 1–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Young-Hyman, D., de Groot, M., Hill-Briggs, F., Gonzalez, J. S., Hood, K., & Peyrot, M. (2016). Psychosocial Care for People with diabetes: A position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 39(12), 2126–2140. Review. Erratum in: Diabetes Care. 2017;40(2):287. Diabetes Care. 2017 n40(5):726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Young-Hyman, D. L., & Davis, C. L. (2010 Mar). Disordered eating behavior in individuals with diabetes: Importance of context, evaluation, and classification. Diabetes Care, 33(3), 683–689. Scholar
  20. Zhang, X., Yang, S., Sun, K., Fisher, E., & Sun, X. (2016). How to achieve better effect of peer support among adults with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Patient Education and Counseling, 99(2), 186–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Border Health DisparitiesUniversity of ArizonaTusconUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations