Advertisement

The Role of Family and Peer Support in Diabetes

  • Joni S. Williams
  • Rebekah J. Walker
  • Leonard E. EgedeEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Social support has garnered significant attention as a contextual factor influencing and shaping individual behaviors, particularly in patients with diabetes. Within the social ecological model of health behavior, social support serves as primarily an interpersonal sphere of influence; however, it also serves as a mechanism for connecting individuals with the surrounding institutional/organizational, community, and policy environments. Family and peer support is one specific type of social support, but can provide all four categories of social support established in the literature: emotional support, tangible support, informational support, and companionship support. This chapter discusses evidence for the relationship between family and peer support in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes on health outcomes. Consistent with the general social support literature, family and peer support are generally associated with improved glycemic control, better self-care, and higher quality of life; however, the type and timing of support are factors that have not yet been fully examined. While family and peer support has been investigated heavily in youth with type 1 diabetes, less focus has been given to its importance in adulthood. Future interventions aimed at family and peer support should consider how to homogenize the use of support and consider specific population-based factors that should be considered to address sociodemographic and cultural factors.

Keywords

Diabetes Family support Peer support Perceived support Social network 

References

  1. Baig, A. A., Benitez, A., Quinn, M. T., & Burnet, D. L. (2015). Family interventions to improve diabetes outcomes for adults. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1353, 89–112.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balfe, M., Doyle, F., Smith, D., Sreenan, S., Brugha, R., Hevey, D., & Conroy, R. (2013). What’s distressing about having type 1 diabetes? A qualitative study of young adults’ perspectives. Endocrine Disorders, 13, 25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bardach, S. H., Tarasenko, Y. N., & Schoenberg, N. E. (2011). The role of social support in multiple morbidity: Self-management among rural residents. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 22, 756–771.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bearman, K. J., & La Greca, A. M. (2002). Assessing friend support of adolescents’ diabetes care: The diabetes social support questionnaire – Friends version. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27, 417–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brownson, C. A., & Heisler, M. (2009). The role of peer support in diabetes care and self-management. Patient, 2(1), 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cameron, F. (2006). Teenagers with diabetes: Management challenges. Australian Family Physician, 35, 386–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dale, J. R., Williams, S. M., & Bowyer, V. (2012). What is the effect of peer support on diabetes outcomes in adults? A systematic review. Diabetic Medicine, 29, 1361–1377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Doe, E. (2016). An analysis of the relationship between peer support and diabetes outcomes in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Health Psychology, 23(10), 1356–1366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fisher, E. B., Ayala, G. X., Ibarra, L., Cherrington, A. L., Elder, J. P., Tang, T. S., … Simmons, D. (2015). Contributions of peer support to health, health care, and prevention: Papers from peers for progress. Annals of Family Medicine, 13(Suppl 1), S2–S8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fisher, E. B., Ballesteros, J., Bhushan, N., Coufal, M. M., Kowitt, S. D., McDonough, A. M., … Urlaub, D. (2015). Key features of peer support in chronic disease prevention and management. Health Affairs (Millwood), 34(9), 1523–1530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ford, M. E., Tilley, B. C., & McDonald, P. E. (1998). Social support among African-American adults with diabetes, part 1: Theoretical framework. Journal of the National Medical Association, 90, 361–365.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Gillibrand, R., & Stevenson, J. (2006). The extended health belief model applied to the experience of diabetes in young people. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 155–169.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Graca Pereira, M., Berg-Cross, L., Almeida, P., & Cunha Machando, J. (2008). Impact of family environment and support on adherence, metabolic control, and quality of life in adolescents with diabetes. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15, 187–193.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Graue, M., Wentzel-Larsen, T., Rokne Hanestad, B., & Sovik, O. (2005). Health-related quality of life and metabolic control in adolescents with diabetes: The role of parental care, control, and involvement. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 20, 373–382.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Hains, A. A., Berlin, K. S., Davies, W. H., Parton, E. A., & Alemzadeh, R. (2006). Attributions of adolescents with type 1 diabetes in social situations: Relationship with expected adherence, diabetes stress, and metabolic control. Diabetes Care, 29, 818–822.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heaney, C. A., & Israel, B. A. (2008). Social networks and social support. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, & K. Viswanath (Eds.), Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  17. Heisler, M., Vijan, S., Makki, F., & Piette, J. D. (2010). Diabetes control with reciprocal peer support versus nurse care management: A randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 153, 507–515.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hsin, O., La Greca, A. M., Valenzuela, J., Moine, C. T., & Delamater, A. (2010). Adherence and glycemic control among Hispanic youth with type 1 diabetes: Role of family involvement and acculturation. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35, 156–166.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Jaser, S. S. (2011). Family interaction in pediatric diabetes. Current Diabetes Report, 11, 480–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Joensen, L. E., Filges, T., & Willaing, I. (2016). Patient perspectives on peer support for adults with type 1 diabetes: A need for diabetes-specific social capital. Journal of Patient Preference Adherence, 10, 1443–1451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jull, J., Witteman, H. O., Ferne, J., Yoganathan, M., & Stacey, D. (2016). Adult-onset type 1 diabetes: A qualitative study of decision-making needs. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 40, 164–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kadirvelu, A., Sadasivan, S., & Ng, S. H. (2012). Social support in type 2 diabetes care: A case of too little, too late. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 5, 407–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Krause, N. (1986). Social support, stress, and Well-being. The Journal of Gerontology, 41, 512–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. LaGreca, A. M., & Bearman, K. J. (2002). The diabetes social support questionnaire-family version: Evaluating adolescents’ diabetes-specific support from family members. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27, 665–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. LaGreca, A. M., Follansbee, D. J., & Skyler, J. S. (1990). Developmental and behavioral aspects of diabetes management in children and adolescents. Children’s Health Care, 19, 132–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leonard, B. J., Garwich, A., & Adwan, J. Z. (2006). Adolescents’ perceptions of parental roles and involvement in diabetes management. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 20, 405–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lorig, K., Green, M., Ritter, P. L., Jernigan, V., Laurent, D. D., Plant, K., & Case, S. (2010). Online diabetes self-management program: A randomized study. Diabetes Care, 33, 1275–1281.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Malik, J. A., & Koot, H. M. (2011). Assessing diabetes support in adolescents: Factor structure of the Modified Diabetes Social Support Questionnaire (M-DSSQ-Family). Pediatric Diabetes, 12, 258–265.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mayberry, L. S., Berg, C. A., Harper, K. J., & Obsorn, C. Y. (2016). The design, usability, and feasibility of a family-focused diabetes self-care support mHealth intervention for diverse, low-income adults with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Research.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7586385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mayberry, L. S., & Osborn, C. Y. (2012). Family support, medication adherence, and glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 35, 1239–1245.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McEwen, M. M., Pasvogel, A., Gallegos, G., & Varrera, L. (2010). Type 2 diabetes self-management social support intervention at the U.S.-Mexico border. Public Health Nursing, 27, 310–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Miller, T. A., & Dimatteo, M. R. (2013). Importance of family/social support and impact on adherence to diabetic therapy. Journal of Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity, 6, 421–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nicklett, E. J., Heisler, M. E., Spencer, M. S., & Rosland, A. M. (2013). Direct social support and long-term health among middle-aged and older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 68, 933–943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Norris, S. L., Lau, J., Smith, S. J., Schmid, C. H., & Engelgau, M. M. (2002). Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of the effects on glycemic control. Diabetes Care, 25, 1159–1171.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Oris, L., Seiffge-Krenke, I., Moons, P., Goubert, L., Rassart, J., Goossens, E., & Luyckx, K. (2016). Parental and peer support in adolescents with chronic condition: A typological approach and developmental implications. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 39, 107–119.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Rintala, T. M., Jaatinen, P., Paavilainen, E., & Astedt-Kurki, P. (2013). Interrelation between adult persons with diabetes and their family: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Family Nursing, 19, 3–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rosland, A. M., Heisler, M., & Piette, J. D. (2012). The impact of family behaviors and communication patterns on chronic illness outcomes: A systematic review. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 221–239.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rosland, A. M., Kieffer, E., Spencer, M., Sinco, B., Palmisano, G., Valerio, M., … Heisler, M. (2015). Do pre-existing diabetes social support or depressive symptoms influence effectiveness of a diabetes management intervention? Patient Education and Counseling, 98(1), 1402–1409.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rosland, A. M., Piette, J. D., Choi, H., & Heisler, M. (2011). Family and friend participation in primary care visits of patients with diabetes or heart failure. Medical Care, 49, 37–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sacco, W. P., & Yanover, T. (2006). Diabetes and depression: The role of social support and medical symptoms. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29, 523–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sallis, J. F., Owen, N., & Fisher, E. B. (2008). Ecological models of health behavior. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, & K. Viswanath (Eds.), Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  42. Shroff Pendley, J., Kasmen, L. J., Miller, D. L., Donze, J., Swenson, C., & Reeves, G. (2002). Peer and family support in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27, 429–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stopford, R., Winkley, K., & Ismail, K. (2013). Social support and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of observational studies. Patient Education and Counseling, 93, 549–558.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Storch, E. A., Lewin, A., Silverstein, J. H., Heidgerken, A. D., Strawser, M. S., Baumeister, A., & Geffken, G. R. (2004). Peer victimization and psychosocial adjustment in children with type 1 diabetes. Clinical Pediatriacs (Phila), 43, 467–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Strom, J. L., & Egede, L. E. (2012). The impact of social support on outcomes in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review. Current Diabetes Reports, 12, 769–781.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tang, T. S., Brown, M. B., Funnell, M. M., & Anderson, R. M. (2008). Social support, quality of life, and self-care behaviors among African Americans with type 2 diabetes. The Diabetes Educator, 34, 266–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Taylor, S. E. (2011). Social support: A review. In M. S. Friedman (Ed.), The handbook of health psychology (pp. 189–214). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Thoits, P. A. (1985). Social support and psychological well-being: Theoretical possibilities. In I. G. Sarason & B. R. Sarason (Eds.), Social support: Theory, research, and application (pp. 52–72). Hingram, MA: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  49. Uchino, B. (2004). Social support and physical health: Understanding the heath consequences of relationships. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. van Dam, H. A., van der Horst, F. G., Knoops, L., Ryckman, R. M., Crebolder, H. F. J. M., & van den Borne, B. H. W. (2004). Social support in diabetes: A systematic review of controlled intervention studies. Patient Education and Counseling, 59, 1–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Wills, T. A. (1991). Social support and interpersonal relationships. Prosocial Behavior, 12, 265–289.Google Scholar
  52. Wysocki, T., & Greco, P. (2006). Social support and diabetes management in childhood and adolescence: Influence of parents and friends. Current Diabetes Report, 6, 117–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhang, X., Norris, S. L., Gregg, E. W., & Beckles, G. (2007). Social support and mortality among older person with diabetes. Diabetes Educator, 33, 273–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joni S. Williams
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rebekah J. Walker
    • 1
    • 2
  • Leonard E. Egede
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal MedicineMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  2. 2.Center for Advancing Population Science (CAPS)Medical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations